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The following pages are, to a large extent, a reprint of a 
series of papers which, at the request of my friend Mr. 
Proctor, I wrote for the columns of ' Knowledge/ in which 
they originally appeared. The work in its collected form 
simply aims at being a primer of the Three-inch Telescope, 
and is designed to instruct the very beginner in the use of 
an instrument of that size, mounted on a common table 
stand and unprovided with any means of rinding objects 
in the sky by means of their co-ordinates. The reader is 
further supposed to know of more of the constellations 
than may be learned from ' The Stars in their Seasons,' 
which forms one of the series of the ' Knowledge Library.' 
In one sense, every single line in the book is original ; inas- 
much as every object referred to was actually described and 
drawn by myself, at the eye end of a telescope of three inches 
aperture. One thing I must most earnestly disclaim, and 
that is anything in the shape of competition or rivalry with 
any existing work treating of telescopic observation. My 
highest aspiration will be fulfilled if this little book should 
serve as an introduction to, and induce the amateur 



diligently to study, a work the charm of whose style is only 
equalled by the scientific value of its contents : I mean, of 
course, the ' Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes ' of 
the late lamented Prebendary Webb. I should be proud 
indeed to feel that my unpretending rudimentary lessons 
had been the means of introducing the student to that 
treasure-house of the glories and beauties of the heavens, 
and should appreciate such a result as the highest reward 
that I could receive for the pains and trouble I have taken. 

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II. THE SUN . . 8 



VI. VENUS , . -53 







MAP OF THE MOON Frontispiece 


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This little book is written to furnish the very beginner in 
observational astronomy with such directions as shall enable 
him to employ, to the greatest possible advantage, the kind 
of instrument with which he will, in all probability, at first pro- 
vide himself. For, be it noted in the outset, it is not intended 
for the possessors of telescopes of considerable aperture 
equatorially mounted or furnished with elaborate rackwork 
movements in altitude and azimuth. 1 For the owners of 
such an abundant literature is already in existence ; and 
they have, at present, such admirable works as Webb's 
6 Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes,' Crossley, Gled- 
hill, and Wilson's ' Handbook of Double Stars,' Chambers's 
one-volume edition of Smyth's ' Celestial Cycle/ &c. I shall 
presuppose nothing on the part of the reader, then, beyond 
an ardent desire to become familiar with the beauties and 
glories of the celestial vault ; and trust, if I can secure his 
attention, to put him fairly in the way of gratifying such a 

1 These terms will be explained as I proceed. 



high and laudable aspiration. To this end I shall take 
as my text the maps in the volume entitled 'The Stars 
in their Seasons,' which forms one of the ' Knowledge 
Library ' series. I should also recommend the student to 
possess himself of the smaller Star Atlas by Mr. Proctor, as 

As it is of the first importance that the workman should 
be familiar with the tools he has to use, I propose to begin 
with a description of the telescope itself, which I will imagine 
to be a three-inch achromatic one, of about forty-two inches 
focal length, mounted upon an ordinary ' pillar-and-claw ' 
.stand. Such an instrument, as usually sold, is shown in fig. 
which, however, represents it as furnished with a valuable 
little subsidiary contrivance (to be immediately described) 
that the observer will have to make (or to get made) himself. 
And here, albeit I am earnestly anxious to eliminate the 
commercial element altogether from consideration, I am 
compelled to caution the student against supposing that a 
first-class three-inch telescope can be made for 5/., or, in 
fact, for any sum approaching it. The object-glass alone 
must cost the maker something like this amount. Hence, 
as I propose to deal with and describe celestial objects, as 
seen in an instrument of the highest class, I give this pre- 
liminary warning, lest the young observer should spend his 
money on a cheap glass, and then wonder at the discrepancy 
between the delineations of stars and planets in the following 
pages, and his own views of them. There is a vast amount 
of rubbish vended in the shape of (so-called) cheap tele- 
scopes, and no tyro should ever purchase such a one without 
its previous examination and testing by a skilled expert. 
Makers like Cooke, Dallmeyer, Grubb, and Wray, will not 
imperil their great and deserved reputation by selling an 
inferior object-glass even to a total stranger : but instru- 
ments of unknown opticians require the most rigid trial 
before they can be safely bought. I shall give, further on, 
a few tests by which the student himself may judge some- 
what of the quality of an instrument he may propose to 




purchase. It is time, however, to turn to our figure below. 
Here we see the brass tube t, into one end of which screws 
the cell containing the object-glass o. Through a tube 
projecting from the brass disc which covers the other end 
of t, the smaller tube s is worked in and out by the milled 
head f, acting on a rack and pinion. This is for the purpose 
of focussing the telescope, and making the image of the 
object observed sharp and distinct. Into the tube s screws 
the eye-piece e, consisting of two lenses mounted in a short 
piece of tubing. Shortly, the action of the instrument is 

Fig i. 

this. The object-glass forms in its focus an image of the 
object to which it is directed, and the eye-piece— which is 
really a microscope — magnifies this image before it enters 
the observer's eye. So much for the telescope itself. It is 
bolted, as will be seen, by two screws and nuts, to a brass 
plate, which has a vertical motion by means of the knuckle- 
joint at a, at the top of the stout brass pillar a b, and a 
horizontal one, furnished by the rotation of the whole of this 
top, fitting inside the pillar. Three massive feet form its 
support. The arm b m, shown in the drawing, forms no 
part of the ordinary fitting of the instrument ; it constitutes 
the subsidiary contrivance of which I spoke above, and 1 

B 2 


shall explain its use presently, l in the figure represents a 
terrestrial, or four-lens eye-piece, which shows objects erect, 
and hence is used for land purposes. It screws in at the 
extremity s, just as e does. The ordinary astronomical, or 
so-called 1 Huyghenian 7 eye-piece, contains, as I have pre^ 
viously said, only two lenses, and inverts, or turns objects 
upside down. This, however, is obviously immaterial in a 
star ; and this construction of the eye-piece enables us to 
obtain high magnifying power with comparatively small loss 
of light, n is another astronomical eye-piece, and p a dark 
glass cap or shade, screwing on to every eye-piece for the 
purpose of observing the sun. The student is earnestly 
warned never to look at the sun through a telescope without 
first covering the eye-piece with one of these shades. When, 
however, I come in the succeeding chapter to speak of the 
sun, I shall describe how the solar details may be telescopic- 
ally shown without looking through the instrument at all. 
The powers usually supplied with a telescope of the size I 
am describing, are one terrestrial one, magnifying, perhaps, 
forty-five diameters ; and three astronomical ones, giving 
powers of something like 50,100, and 180. If, however, its 
possessor intends to devote his instrument wholly to celestial 
observation, I should advise him to replace the terrestrial 
eye-piece by two Huyghenian ones, magnifying twenty-five 
(for comets, nebulae, and clusters) and 250 (for close double 
stars) respectively. For night use, too, a ' dew-cap ? will be 
found indispensable. This may be made of a tin tube, 
bright outside and blackened within, about eight inches long, 
and fitting over the end of the telescope at o. This prevents 
direct radiation from the object-glass itself, and the conse- 
quent deposition of dew upon it. Never wipe your object- 
glass if you can possibly help it Expose it to the heat of a 
fire (not too near) or of next morning's sun should it become 
heavily dewed. 

A word may now be said as to the use of the bar b m 
shown in our sketch. It is a fact familiar to nearly everyone 
who has ever opened an Astronomical Primer (and, at any rate, 

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to be established by a single winter night's observation of 
the sky from dusk to dawn), that the stars all seem to de- 
scribe circles round a centre in the northern sky, called the 
pole, very close to which is situated the star we call the pole- 
star. The faither we go from this centre, the larger these 
circles become, up to a distance of 90 0 ; beyond which they 
begin to diminish again. Moreover, the point round which 
they turn is in this country something over 50 0 above the 
northern horizon (depending on the observer's latitude), so 
that they are all described obliquely to the horizon. Obvi- 
ously, were the apparent axis of the concave celestial vault 
vertical, the pole would be overhead, and the stars, seeming to 
describe circles parallel to the horizon, would neither rise nor 
set. In this imaginary condition of things (imaginary in Eng- 
land, but it really exists at the poles), the mounting of the tele- 
scope shown in the figure above would enable the observer to 
follow a star by merely turning the telescope round the ver- 
tical axis a b, when once that star was in the field of view ; 
but a moment's thought will show that a simple movement 
round a perpendicular axis will by no means accomplish this 
when the star's path is described round an inclined one. 
The vertical movement of the telescope. I may here say, is 
spoken of as its motion in altitude ; its horizontal motion as 
that in azimuth. It will require a little more attention to 
see that if we so tilted the axis a b that it became parallel to 
(or practically coincided with) the apparent axis of the sky, 
then the simple motion round it would cause the telescope 
to follow any star to which it was directed, from its rising to 
its setting. A telescope thus placed is said to be equato- 
rially mounted. Now the little device in the cut, for which, 
in its existing form, we are indebted to the Earl of Crawford 
and Balcarres, is intended to communicate an approximately 
equatorial motion to the object end of a telescope mounted 
as above, on an ordinary altazimuth stand. It takes the 
form of a bar b m, extending from the base of the pillar a b. 
In it. at such a distance from the point b, vertically under a, 
that the angle acb shall be equal to the latitude of the place 


of observation, a hole is bored, and a thumb-screw (shown 
at c) inserted through the bar, so as to nip a light chain or 
thin wire tight, when it is passed through the hole. The 
other end of this chain is fastened anywhere towards the end 
of the telescope at c 7 , and sufficient weight is put on to the 
eye end of the telescope to keep the chain or wire c d tight. 
Perhaps I may say that if (as is very common) the height 
from a to Bis 1 1 inches, the hole at c may be 8| inches from 
b. This will give a quasi-equatorial movement to the tele- 
scope for London, and for places not differing much from 
it in latitude. The use of this contrivance is very simple. 
The bar b m is placed due north and south (the end m of 
course being towards the south). A star is got into the 
field, and the chain c c' stretched tight and made fast. Then 
the observer will find that in rotating the telescope horizon- 
tally round a, the end o will be so shackled as to constrain 
it to follow the given object. 

A few miscellaneous hints may conclude what I have to 
say on the telescope itself. First the reader may wish to 
test it for its freedom from colour and aberration. For 
the first let him turn the instrument on to the ' limb ' (or 
round edge) of the moon, and first move the eye-piece within 
the focus by means of the milled head f : then a purple 
fringe should appear on the lunar limb. On moving the 
eye-piece outside the focus, this should give place to a green 
fringe ; a telescope that exhibits this sequence of phenomena 

is achromatic. For spherical aberration, focus the telescope 
on a tolerably bright star with the whole aperture, and then 

Fig. 2 

Fig. 3 . 

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put a diaphragm of, say, inch aperture over the object- 
glass, and see if the star remains accurately in focus. If it 
does, spherical aberration is cured too. A bright star in focus 
with a power of 150 should present the appearance ot fig. 2, 
and by no means that of fig. 3, which latter indicates a 
practically worthless object-glass. Nor should any illumi- 
nated haze appear about bright stars or planets. Presuming 
that the instrument acquired by the student whom I am 
addressing has been found equal to these tests, he may pro- 
ceed to put it to practical use. The first object to which it 
shall be directed is the sun, and to this our next chapter 
shall be devoted. 




In connection with the observations we are about to 
attempt, it is necessary to reiterate and emphasise the cau- 
tion given on p. 4. On no account then, whatever, must 
the observer attempt to look at the sun under the same 
instrumental conditions that he would employ in viewing 
the stars. To try to do so without either the interposition 
of a dark-coloured eye-glass, or the employment of a device 
to be immediately explained, is almost certain to involve 
permanent blindness altogether. Sir William Herschel lost 
an eye -in such an attempt; an attempt against which I 
earnestly warn the student As a matter of practice, how- 
ever, opticians send out each astronomical or Huyghenian 
eye-piece with a dark-glass cap, which must be screwed on 
whenever the sun is to be looked at directly through the 
telescope. Should the purchaser of an instrument have his 
choice of colour in these eye-caps I would recommend very 
dark green or blue, or else what is known as 'London 
smoke,' as the most agreeable tints for use. Red glasses 
are less liable to crack with the sun's heat, but they are by 
no means so pleasant to look through. Whatever colour, 
however, the observer selects, let him take care that it is 
dark enough; and as dark glasses are, as I have hinted, 
liable to crack with the sun's heat, means must be taken to 
diminish that heat as much as possible. This will involve, 
though, one of two things : either the cutting down of the 
aperture of the instrument to two inches, or even less, if 



the observation is likely to be a protracted one ; or the 
turning away the object-glass from the sun at short inter- 
vals should the whole of the object-glass be employed, to 
give the eye-piece time to cool. There is a device which, 
should the possessor of a telescope choose to go to the cost 
of it, enables the sun to be viewed for an almost indefinite 
period with the whole aperture. It consists simply of a 
perfectly plane plate of glass placed at an angle of 45 0 
with the axis of the telescope, so as to reflect the image 
formed by the objective in a direction square to the optical 
axis. The outside of this plate is ground, so as to destroy 
any secondary reflection ; and, pretty obviously, a very large 
proportion indeed both of the sun's light and heat passes 
through it. The small amount which is reflected passes 
into an ordinary Huyghenian eye-piece (which may now be 
covered with a lighter eye-shade), which must itself be ob- 
viously placed at right angles to the optical axis of the tele- 
scope. Or, finally, we may view the sun without looking 
through our telescope at all; and, for getting a general idea of 
solar detail, the method I am about to describe is perhaps 
the best of all. Moreover, it enables half-a-dozen people to 
view the solar disc at once, if necessary. In this way of 
using the telescope we convert it into a kind of solar micro- 
scope or magic-lantern, and throw the sun's image on to a 
sheet of very fine, clean, hot-pressed cardboard, which we 
shift to and from the eye-piece, and move the focussing 
tube until a sharp and distinct image of the sun is obtained. 
It will be necessary to have a large sheet of pasteboard 
covered with black paper, through a hole in the middle of 
which the eye-piece comes, in order to shield the card on 
which the image is projected from direct sunlight. The 
same end would be more perfectly attained by passing the 
object end of the telescope through an aperture in the 
shutter of a completely darkened room ; but this is rather 
too elaborate an arrangement for the ordinary observer. 
Where only one person wishes to see the sun at a time, 
the receiving disc may be fastened at the bottom of a paste- 


board cone fitting over the eye end of the telescope, and 
with an aperture cut in the side to look through. An 
arrangement of this sort is illustrated on p. 136 of the 
' Lessons in Elementary Astronomy/ by the editor of 
' Knowledge,' published by Messrs. Longman. Which- 
ever of these ways we select to view the sun in, we shall be 
struck by three or four salient features of his surface. The 
first thing we shall note is that the limb or edge of the sun 
is perceptibly darker than the middle of his disc, which 
gradually shades off as we approach 
his circular outline. The effect of ro- 
tundity which this gives to his image 
is very striking. A little considera- 
tion will show that this must be the 
effect of an atmosphere surrounding 
what is technically called the photo- 
sphere, or light-radiating surface of 
the sun. The next thing that will 
arrest our attention will be the dark spots which diversify 
the sun's face. 

The above figure may serve as an illustration of an in- 
dividual single spot, and was drawn with a power of 80, on 
Wednesday, September 12, 1883, at 11*25 a.m. It will be 
seen to consist of two well-distinguished parts, a dark in^ 
terior one, known technically as the umbra (three of these 
umbrae at least will be observed to be included in the pen- 
umbra in the sketch above), surrounded by a lighter fringing 
which is called the penumbra. By the use of a peculiarly 
constructed eye-piece, and a telescope of considerable aper- 
ture, the late Mr. Dawes discovered black spots within all 
large umbrae, and even some small ones. If the observer 
knows exactly what to look for, he may sometimes pick 
these up even with a three-inch telescope. It will, however, 
be necessary to cover the diaphragm in the eye-piece with a 
circular disc of glazed visiting card (with the glazed side 
towards the field glass), centrally perforated with a minute 

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Fig. 4. — Spot on Sun, 
Sept. 12, 1883, 11.25 a.m. 


hole made with a fine red-hot needle. The telescope is 
moved until the spot occupies this exceedingly circum- 
scribed field ; and thus cut off from the surrounding glare, 
the nucleus may often be detected. I have so far spoken 
as though spots were isolated, but they perhaps most fre- 
quently appear in groups, involving the most enormous 
areas on the sun's surface, of the disturbances of which 
they are the outward and visible sign. 

Our next figure represents a group of spots visible 
on the sun at 9.50 a.m. on June 30th of the same year, 
and w T as drawn (as in the case of every other figure 
which appears in these 
pages) at the telescope. 
As a reflecting eye-piece 
was used in this particular 
case, though, everything is 
turned right for left in the 
engraving. It will be noted 
how the curves of the 
penumbrae connected the 
umbrae. Micrometrical 
measurement made imme- 
diately after our sketch 
gave the superficial area 
of the left-hand group as 762,940,200 square miles, and 
that of the right-hand one 1,074,370,000 square miles, or 
in all 1,837,310,200 square miles of the sun's surface, as 
involved in this stupendous disturbance alone 1 It could 
be seen with the naked eye w r hen defended by a darkened 
or smoked glass. There were other spots on the sun's disc 
at the time. Careful study of the spots under the most 
favourable definition will reveal certain striking features. 
The umbrae, under ordinary circumstances, seem to be: 
black ; but the student who has the opportunity of watch- 
ing a partial solar eclipse, or a transit of Mercury,, will at 
once be struck with the extreme blackness of the moon's 

Fig. 5.— Group of Spots, June 30, 1883, 
9 50 a.m. (visible to the naked eye). 


limb or of the planet, as contrasted with the (now, by con- 
trast) brown hue of the spots. A distinctly brown and even 
orange tinge may often be seen in the images of spots pro- 
jected on to a sheet of cardboard in the manner described 
above. Attentive study of the penumbra will reveal a kind 
of fimbriated or fringed appearance in it; and it will be 
further noticed to be darkest at its outer edge, and seem- 
ingly to get lighter as it 
approaches the umbra. 
Returning now to the 
limb or edge of the sun 
— which, as I have pre- 
viously said, will be per- 
ceived to be notably 
darker than the centre 
of his disc — we shall 
find the shading diver- 
sified by curious and 
often rather compli- 
cated streaks of light. 
These are called ' fa- 
culae,' and are most 
numerous and con- 
spicuous about spots 
which are close to the 
limb, or where such 
spots are about to 
break out. I have 
sometimes traced fa- 
culae for some con- 
siderable distance on to the brighter part of the sun's disc ; 
but, as a rule, they are only seen near the limb. The 
accompanying sketch represents a group of faculae which 
was visible on the morning of August 25th, 1883, at 9 h. 
40 min. 

It was drawn on the paper on to which the image of the 
sun was projected, in the manner previously described. 

Fig. 6.— Faculae on Sun's limb, Aug. 25, 1803, 
9.40 a.m. 

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The fourth piece of solar detail of which I need here speak 
is the mottling or graining of his surface. This is best 
caught by shifting the telescope a little, so as to make the 
sun's image move about in the field. If this be done, the 
eye will soon receive the impression of a roughness or grain 
upon the sun's face, akin to that of a piece of magnified 
loaf-sugar. In large instruments this is seen under the best 
definition to consist of markings which have, not unaptly, 
been compared to rice grains, but its resolution into these 
appearances is wholly beyond our instrumental power. 

Such are the leading features observable on the surface 
of the sun with the means at our disposal. I may say, how- 
ever, with reference to them, that I am not writing a helio- 
graphical treatise ; and hence, for their interpretation, must 
refer the reader to ' The Sun,' by Mr. R. A. Proctor, or to 
the volume of the ' International Scientific Series ' bearing 
the same title, by Professor Young. I have simply essayed — 
not, I trust, wholly without success — to indicate what may be 
seen upon the sun in a three-inch telescope. By the aid of 
Browning's star spectroscope, with a very narrow slit, the 
spectra of prominences (those huge uprushes of hydrogen 
gas known as the ' red flames ' which are seen during a 
total solar eclipse) may often be detected on the sun's limb, 
even in a telescope of the size of that whose use is pre- 
supposed ; but the mention of the fact must suffice here. 




Of the moon I shall treat somewhat more in detail, as, 
probably, one of the first objects to which the incipient 
possessor of a telescope will be likely to direct his instru- 
ment and attention. But I am not going to write here a com- 
plete treatise on selenography. Those of my readers whom 
I may succeed in interesting sufficiently in this subject will, 
doubtless, proceed to the section devoted to it in Webb's 
admirable work, ' Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes/ 
and to that even more elaborate one, ' The Moon/ by Mr. 
E. Neison, which may be fairly regarded as a kind of lunar 
encyclopaedia. What I propose to' do in these pages is to point 
out to the possessor of a three-inch telescope exactly what 
it may be expected to show him in the shape of lunar scenery, 
and of the general physical conformation of our satellite. 
To this end I present, in the frontispiece, a map of the moon, 
founded on the excellent one by Mr. Webb, and which also 
appears in the volume on ' The Moon,' by Mr. Proctor. I 
have purposely retained the lettering and numbering adopted 
by Mr. Webb to facilitate reference, and propose to describe 
and draw a selection of the objects thus indicated, with the 
end of familiarising the student with the principal features 
of the surface of our satellite. Some of the chief of these 
I have drawn at the telescope, in order that the young 
observer may know precisely what to look for ; and I shall 
in all cases give the exact age of the moon and the power 
employed, in order that the sketches so made may be directly 

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' comparable with the moon herself. The map almost explains 
itself. It gives an inverted image of the moon as it would 
-appear in a telescope with an ordinary Huyghenian eye- 
piece of low power. The curved lines represent the lines of 
lunar longitude, the moon being supposed to be in what is 
called her condition of ' Mean Libration.' The meaning of 
this phrase (which is, however, not very material for our 
present purpose) will be found thoroughly explained in the 
work on ' The Moon,' by the editor of ' Knowledge/ to which 
I have referred above. One immediate use to which we 
may put these lines is this. The curve separating the il- 
luminated part of the moon's disc from the dark part (techr 
nically called the ' terminator ') creeps over her face at the 
rate of 12 0 11/ 26"]" per diem. Hence, when she is one day 
old, the central part of this arc will be in lunar longitude 
77 0 48' 2,$'$" west of her centre ; at two days old, at longitude 
65° 37 / 6 , 6 // west; and so on until she is 7*38 days old, when 
she will be ' dichotomised,' or exactly half light and half dark. 
So far the bright crescent is concave towards the east. After- 
wards, when the moon has entered her ' first quarter,' the 
'terminator' becomes convex towards the east and continues 
to increase in convexity until full moon, when it merges in 
the moon's general circular outline. Pretty obviously these 
phenomena recur in reverse order between the time of full 
moon and that of her becoming 'new' again. Suppose, 
now, that the student wishes to know what formations are 
near to the boundary of light and darkness when the moon 
is 5 days old. 5 x 12 0 n' 26*7 // = 6o° 57' 13 -5'', the longi- 
tude of the terminator from the west limb. 1 Taking this from 
90 0 , we find 29 0 2' ^6'$" as its longitude from the moon's 
centre ; and now, looking at the map, we see that while the 
craters and ring plains 374, 371, 372, 323, 57, 48, 37, &c, 
• will all be illuminated (albeit very obliquely), the sun will not 
yet have risen on 367, 321, 320, 319, 318, 47, and 50, and 
only partially on 54. In like manner, the position of the 
terminator at any other age of the moon may be determined. 

1 This is mathematically correct ; but no such refinement is either 
possible, or would be of any use, in practice. 


In fact, my chief object in introducing these lines of 
longitude at all is to supply the beginner with the means of 
ascertaining with sufficient accuracy when any given forma- 
tion is most favourably placed for observation, and inci- 
dentally of identifying it. When once he is familiar with 
the leading features of the lunar surface, he will easily be 
able to determine for himself the times at which they can 
be most advantageously examined. If we reflect for a little, 
it will be seen that this must evidently be w r hen the object 
under examination is most obliquely illuminated— in other 
words, when it is tolerably near to the boundary line between 
light and darkness. Suppose that we had to determine the 
shape of a white basin at a distance of a couple of miles, 
with a pocket telescope, at night, and had our choice as to 
the method of illuminating it. Obviously we should not cast 
the light of a lantern directly into it — or we should perceive 
nothing but a circular white patch in the telescope. We 
should light it from the side ; the shadows which it would in 
consequence cast revealing its contour distinctly. Now, at 
full moon the sun is (for our present purpose) shining verti- 
cally on to our satellite, which, consequently, presents 
nothing but a mottled, spotted, and shaded surface, the 
most conspicuous features being certain dark patches, 
erroneously named 'seas/ and a radiating series of streaks 
issuing from a crater (hereafter to be described), called Tycho, 
situated, in an inverting telescope, towards the top of the moon. 
People with keen vision can detect this system of streaks 
with the naked eye ; when so seen, though, they, of course, 
seem to radiate from the southern part, or bottom, of the 
moon. With these preliminary remarks, I may proceed to 
furnish a key to the map forming the frontispiece. I merely 
give the names of the various formations here, reserving any 
description of them individually until I come to treat of their 
aspect in the telescope. Beginning, then, with the chief 
dark markings or patches : — 

A, Sea of Conflicts. B, Humboldt's Sea. C, Sea of Cold. 
D, Lake of Death. E, Lake of Dreams. F, the Marsh of a Dream. 

Hosted by 


G, the Sea of Tranquillity. H, the Sea of Serenity. I, the Marsh of 
Clouds. K, the Marsh of Corruption. L, Sea of Vapour. M, Middle 
Bay. N, Bay of Heat. O, Sea of Showers. P, Bay of Rainbows. 
Q, Ocean of Storms. R, Bay of Dew. S, Sea of Clouds. T, Sea of 
Moisture. V, Sea of Nectar. X, Sea of Fertility. Y, Smyth's Sea. 
Z, the South Sea. 

Ring Plains, Craters, Mountain Ranges, &c. 



34. Hooke 


Mount Hsemus 


35. Strabo 





36. Thales 




37. Gartner 





38. Democritus 


Sulpicius Gallus 



39. Arnold 





40. Christn. Mayer 





41. Meton 





42. Euctemon 


Mount Caucasus 



43* Scoresby 





44. Gioja 



rTo Ti C ATI 

£JO» XJcLl 1U VT 


jCXL J.O \.\J LIV^ 



46. Archytas 





47. Plana 





48. Mason 





49. Baily 





50. Burg 





51. Mount Taurus 





52. Romer 





53. Le Monnier 





54. Posidonius 


Mount Pladley 



55. Littrow 





56. Maraldi 


Mount Bradley 



57. Vitruvius » 





58. Mount Argseus 




59. Macrobius 


Marco Polo 



60. Proclus 


Mount Wolf 



61. Pliny 





62. Ross 





63. Arago 





64. Ritter 


Julius Caesar 



65. Sabine 





66. Jansen 





67. Maskelyne 








































Wilhelm I. 












































Gam bar t 












Carpathian Mts. 






Gay Lussac 




Pur bach 


Tobias Mayer 


Vasco de Gama 






Hercynian Mts. 


















Ulugh Beigh 









La Hire 
















Lai and e 




















PI el icon 






























La Place 




Fra Mauro 






Ripheean Mts. 





































142. Bouguer 





Hosted by 



228. Ramsden 





229. Vitello 





230. Doppelmeyer 

2 73- 


3 X 5- 

Altai Mts. 

231. Mersenne 





232. Gassendi 





233* Agatharchides 




234. Schiller 


Kook Mts. 



2 35- Bayer 





236. Rost 


Cr tiger 



237. Hainzel 





238. Capuanus 



3 2 3- 


239. Schickard • 



3 2 4- 


240. Drebbel 



3 2 5- 


241. Lehmann 





242. Phocylides 

_ 0 . 




243. Wargentin 





244. Inghirami 





245. Bailly 





246. Dorfel Mts. 





247. Hausen 





248. Segner 





249. Weigel 





250. Zuchius 


.La uaille 



251. Bettinus 



_ _ 


bant been 

252. Kircher 





2 53' Wilson 





254. Casatus 





255. Klaproth 


Theon sen. 



256. Newton 


Theon jun. 




o4 z « 

258. Malapert 





259. Leibnitz Mts. 





260. Blancanus 





261. Scheiner 





262. Moretus 


Des Cartes 



263. Short 




La Perouse 

264. Cysatus 





265. Gruembergor 





266. Billy 





267. Hansteen 




Wilhelm Hum 

268. Zupus 




269. Fontana 




Legend re 

270. Sirsalis 






355. Licetus 

356. Cuvier 

357. Clairant 

358. Maurolycus 

359. Barocius 

360. Bacon 

361. Buch 

362. Busching 

363. Gemma Frisius 

364. Poisson 

365. Nonius 

366. Fernelius 

367. Riccius 

368. Rabbi Levi 

369. Zagut 

370. Lindenau 

371. Piccolomini 

372. Fracastorius 

373. Neander 

374. Stiborius 

375. Reichenbach 

376. Rheita 

377. Fraunhofer 

378. Vega 

379. Marinus 

380. Oken 

381. Pontecoulant 

382. Flanno 

383. Fabricius 

384. Me this 

385. Steinheil 

386. Pitiscus 

387. Hommel 

388. Vlacq 

389. Rosenberger 

390. Nearchus 

391. Hagecius 

392. Biela 
393 Nicolai 

394. Lilly 

395. Jacobi 

396. Zach 

397. Schomberger 

398. Boguslawski 

399. Boussingault 

400. Mutus 

The beginner with the telescope who has read or heard 
of ' mountains ' in the moon, and who takes his first look at 
our satellite with a view of examining them, will certainly be 
puzzled by the spectacle presented to his gaze. If we sup- 
pose the moon to be five or six days old, and that he is 
regarding her southern horn (or upper one, as seen in the 
telescope), he will be struck by the ' fact that it seems to 
be completely honeycombed by circular or elliptical holes, 
surrounded by ridges, their walls breaking into each other, 
and the depressions themselves being confluentin all direc^ 
tions. A little thought and attention will reveal the fact 
that these are volcanic craters on the plains, surrounded 
by cliffs, with, in many cases, conical hills rising from their 
centre, which we are viewing from above, as though, in 
fact, we were looking down upon them from the car of a 
balloon suspended at a tremendous height above them. In 
the case of those close to the terminator, the sun is just 
rising, and their depressed plains or cup-shaped interiors 
are still plunged in the blackness of night ; while the more 
elevated cliffs surrounding them have already caught the 
sun's rays, and stand prominently out of the darkness. The 
words ' blackness of night/ which I have just used, are 
peculiarly appropriate in the case of the moon, inasmuch as, 

Hosted by 



from her absence of atmosphere, light is not scattered, as it 
is upon the earth, and everything that is not in brilliant sun- 
shine is in total darkness. The observant student may 
possibly demur to this statement when he notices that, close 
to the terminator, the light fades gradually ; but he must 
bear in mind that the sun is rising very slowly at this part of 
the moon's surface, and that only a small portion of his disc 
(from which, moreover, his rays fall very obliquely) is above 
the horizon theie. One notable effect of the absence of air, 
and the consequent brilliant lights and jet-black shadows on 
our satellite, is, that telescopic power tells upon her surface 
to an extent incomparably greater than it does in the case 
of any other body in the sky. Let us assume that we are 
employing a power of 160. Well, this shows us the moon 
as she would appear to the naked eye were she only 1,468 
miles from the surface of the earth — a pretty long distance 
truly; but when we consider that Mont Blanc is discernible 
by unassisted vision from Lyons, 100 miles off, through all 
the thickness of the intervening terrestrial atmospheric 
vapour, we shall gain some notion of what this represents in 
the case of the airless moon, with her brilliant lights and 
inky shadows. A power of 250 will bring her seemingly 
within 939 miles of us: but no useful purpose will be attained 
by the employment of such magnification (for seleno-graphi- 
cal purposes) with a three- inch telescope. In our subsequent 
sketches 160 is the highest power that was ever used. The 
nature and character of the objects it will reveal will become 
apparent in the description of them which will follow. 

Night One. 

In commencing our examination of some of the typical 
and more remarkable objects on the moon's surface, I will 
suppose that she is between three and four days old. Arming, 
then, our three-inch telescope with a power of 120, we pro- 
ceed to direct it to her face ; and a very remarkable spectacle 
it is which will present itself to the student making his 


maiden observational essay on our satellite. He will first 
be struck by the number of ring-plains, of which I have 
briefly spoken above, between the circular bright western 
limb of the moon and the ' terminator ; ' by which name, 
as I have previously explained, the boundary of light and 
darkness is known. The Sea of Conflicts (A in our map) 
and part of the Sea of Fertility (X) will also strike his eye. 
Eefore proceeding, however, to scrutinise the various objects 
contained within the bright crescent of the moon, it will be 
interesting to shift her image in the field of view of the tele- 
scope. If this be done, it will be found that the whole of 
the moon is visible ; the dark limb looking like a very ghost 
on the black background of the sky. Moreover, if the at- 
mospheric conditions are favourable, a certain amount of 
detail will be readily seen upon this dark portion of the 
moon, a bright spot, Aristarchus (148 in our map), and a 
dark one, Grimaldi (272), being the most conspicuous objects. 
I may shortly say here, with reference to this phenomenon, 
that it is the effect of earth-shine. Five minutes' study of 
the diagram illustrating the changes of the mopn which 
appears in every elementary work on astronomy that has 
ever been written, will show that when the moon is new to 
the earth, the earth is full to the moon. Moreover, we pre- 
sent a disc to our satellite more than thirteen times the size 
of that which she exhibits to us, and hence it will be seen 
that the amount of light we send her at the time of her 
conjunction (or when she is 'new') must be very con- 
siderable. Of course, as the moon waxes to us, we wane to 
her, so that it is only. during the first and last few days of 
every lunation that this earth-shine renders the dark side of 
the moon visible. Having satisfied ourselves as to its visi- 
bility, we will return to the illuminated crescent, Now, the 
craters and plains visible at the time of which I am speaking 
all present, more or less, an elliptical outline, the ellipticity 
becoming more and more marked as we approach the bright 
limb. If the student will regard a terrestrial globe from a 
little distance, he will at once understand that this is an 

Hosted by 



effect of perspective. In fact, while the Sea of Conflicts (A) 
seems to have its major axis north and south, it in reality 
lies from east to west ; this great, dark plain measuring 
only 281 miles from north to south, and 355 miles from 
east to west. I have called it a plain, but a little attention 
will show undulating ridges on parts of its surface. Its 
greenish grey tint will be noted, too. To the east of this 
' sea/ Picard (4) will be seen. To the west of this is a white 
spot, which is a rather mysterious object, having been seen 
to present the most varying appearances. North-east of 
Condorcet (5) is the Promontorium Agarum, a kind of pen- 
insula projecting into the Mare. This is a striking object 
when the moon is nearly sixteen days old. Cleomedes (12) 
is a fine formation, about seventy-eight miles in diameter. It 
has a trifid mountain in its interior. On its eastern wall is 
situated a very deep crater plain, Tralles (13 in the map). 
There is a central mountain on the floor of this, too. 
Endymion (27) is a circular plain (elliptical as it appears in 
the telescope). Its western wall rises in places to a height 
of upwards of 15,000 feet Directing our 
instrument now towards the southern half of 
the lunar crescent, we arrive at Langrenus 
(338) and Vendelinus (339), the former a 
splendid object, with a bright central hill. 
And now we come to that grand object, 
Petavius, which, as illustrating several typical 
lunar features, I have here drawn. 

As seen in a three-inch telescope with a 
power of 120, the moon's age being 3*24 days, 

... his,, 7. — Petavius 

it will be noted how the wall is divided Moon's Age, 3*24 
by narrow valleys. The mountain in the dayi " 
convex interior is nearly 5,600 feet high ; and from this a 
straight dark line, or ' rill,' will be seen to extend in a south- 
easterly direction to the wall. These rills, as they have been 
called, are very numerous on the moon ; but few are so con- 
spicuous as the one of which I am speaking. They appear 
to be exceedingly deep ravines, clefts, or cracks ; but they 


are, undoubtedly, the most inexplicable of all lunar objects. 
Sometimes they pass through wall and plain indifferently ; 
at others, they seem to stop short at an object, but to re- 
appear on the other side of it. Moreover, they occasionally 
intersect I shall have more to say of them as I proceed. 
Before concluding to-night's work, the attention of the 
young observer may be directed to one or two points of the 
Leibnitz Mountains (259), just coming into sunlight, and 
shining like stars close to the southern cusp of the moon. 

Night Two. 

Our first essay in the examination of the lunar surface 
was supposed to be made when the moon was between three 
and four days old. To-night I will imagine that her age 
has increased, and is about six days. The first thing which 
will strike the attentive student is the changed aspect, under 
the more vertical light of the sun, of the formations he has 
observed at an earlier date in the lunation. Objects near 
the moon's western limb, which, lit laterally by the rising 
sun, cast black shadows, and so revealed their configurations 
distinctly, are now illuminated (like the i depths of the sea,' 
in the famous prize poem) by 'the sun's perpendicular rays,' 
and are converted into mere bright blotches upon a darker 
background. A strange formation which was close to the 
terminator at the epoch of our last observation, so curiously 
illustrates the change of aspect induced by varying illumi- 
nation, that I give three illustrations of it as seen in the 
waxing, full, and waning moon at the ages given under the 
respective drawings. It is numbered 327 in our map, and 
is called Messier, presumably from its resemblance to a 
comet ; the French astronomer, after whom it is named, 
having been, as is pretty well known, one of the keenest 
searchers for and discoverers of comets of the last century. 

The two slightly diverging streaks which seem to radiate 
from the right hand, or eastern of the two craters (' Messier 
A '), appear almost artificial in their regularity. The most 

Hosted by 



curious thing, however, in connection with these two craters 
is this : that Madler, as the result of a large number of ob- 

Fig. 8. — Messier. Moon's Age, 3*95 days. Fig. 9. — Messier. Full Moon. 

Fig. 10. — Messier. Moon's Age, 17*8 days. 

servations, called pointed attention to their precise similarity 
in size, form, depth, and brightness. A glance at either of 
our drawings made at the telescope at the epochs specified 
will suffice to show that they now differ widely in this respect : 
that Messier itself (the western one) is decidedly smaller 
than Messier A, and that their major axes lie approximately 
at right angles to each other. The young observer should 
try to view this formation under the same illumination as I 
myself did in making the third of the above sketches ; the 
long peaked shadows revealing curiously the structure of 
the crater walls which cast 
them. Messier itself is 
about nine miles in dia- 
meter. The southern ex- 
tremity of the Sea of Nectar 
(V) terminates in a kind of 
bay, known as Fracastorius 

Under this illumination 
Fracastorius looks like what 
I have called above a bay. 

If, however, it be observed when quite close to the 
terminator (preferably in the waning moon), it will be 

Fig, 11.— Fracastorius. Moon's Age, 
5-65 days. 

Hosted by 



seen as a complete circle, the northern part of it con- 
sisting of low detached blocks. South of it is a very fine 
object, the grand ring- plain Piccolomini (371), about 57-^ 
miles in diameter. Between this and Frascastorius the moon 
is very mountainous. South of Piccolomini lie a number of 
craters and ring-plains, whose names may be learned from 
our map. Starting now from the north side of the Sea of 
Nectar we find an interesting pair of craters, Isidore and 
Capella (323 and 324) ; and crossing the Sea of Tranquillity 
from south to north we airive at a group of craters, Romer 
(52), Littrow (55), Maraldi (56), and Vitruvius (57). A 

little range of mountains of 
the ordinary terrestrial type, 
called Mount Argaeus (58), 
will be noted just on the Sea 
of Tranquillity. On the 
north-west boundary of the 
Sea of Serenity (H) lies one 
of the largest ring-plains in 
the moon, Posidonius (54), 
some 62 miles in diameter. 
There is a fine central crater 
in this formation, and it 
would form an instructive 
exercise for the incipient 
selenographer who can draw, 
to try and sketch some of the 
details which abound in this 
fine object. Atlas (28) and 
Hercules (29) here shown 
are two noble walled plains 
or depressions, 55 miles and 
46 miles broad respectively. 
It will be noted that while 
the most conspicuous object 
in the interior of Atlas is a mountain, in Hercules it is a 
crater. . Glancing at Pliny (61), a fine terraced ring, full of 

Hosted by 

Fig. 12.— Atlas and Hercules. 
Moon's Age, 5*65 days. 

Fig. 13.— Catherine, Cyrillus, and 
Theophilus. Moon's Age, 5*65 days. 



little hills, on our way southward again, we will conclude 
our night's work by the examination of that noble triple 
group, Theophilus, Cyrillus, and Catherine (319, 320, 321); 
The study of the connection between these grand objects 
and of the way in which they are connected supplies us 
with a key to the chronology of this part of the lunar 
surface. The valley connecting Catherine and Cyrillus will 
be observed, as also the way in which the wall of Cyrillus 
has been intruded on by Theophilus. 

Little or no detail is observable in Catherine when so 
near the terminator, but the shape of the shadows cast into 
its interior reveals that of the ridges and peaks causing 
them. Cyrillus will be seen to be more trapezoidal than 
circular, and the two mountains in its centre and the con- 
spicuous crater on its wall will at once arrest the eye. 
Theophilus is the deepest crater in the moon, the walls 
being in places 18,000 feet above the level of the bottom. 
Its diameter is nearly 64 miles. Necessarily its sides are 
brilliantly illuminated by the rising sun when the interior 
is plunged in the blackest night, and at about the fifth day 
of the moon's age it may be seen projecting beyond the 
terminator into the darkness of the seemingly surrounding 
sky as a brilliant ring. Sharp-sighted people can detect this 
without any optical aid. 

Night Three* 

Advancing sunlight is now bringing into view a highly 
complicated mass of walled plains and craters in the south- 
western quadrant of the moon ; and with some of the more 
notable among them we will begin our work to-night. 
Maurolycus (358 in our map) is a splendid object about the 
time of the moon's first quarter. The great complexity of 
the wall will attract the attention of the observer. A few 
crater pits may be detected with the instrument we are 
employing on the walls, as well as on the floor of Mauro- 
lycus, and there are numerous hills on the latter also visible 


under favourable illumination. Another splendid object in 
this neighbourhood is Stofler (354), but the inside of this is 
very much more level and undisturbed than that of its 
neighbour. The system of bright streaks radiating from 
Tycho (previously referred to on p. 16) passes over this 
region, with the curious result that the bold and most con- 
spicuous formations of which I am speaking to all intents 
and purposes disappear at full moon altogether ! In Walter 
(200), Regiomontanus (201), and Purbach (202) we have 
an instance of three crater plains in connection with each 
other, and lying, approximately, north and south of each 
other, one example of which we have already seen in 
Theophilus, Cyrillus, and Catherine, and another of which 
we are immediately to examine in Arzachel, Alphonsus, and 
Ptolemy. North-east of Purbach lies Thebit (203), a crater 

Arzachel is about 65^ miles in diameter, with terraced 
walls, diversified by clefts and craters. Alphonsus is 83 miles 
across, and has very complicated walls. The northern one 

Fig. 14. — Arzachel, Alphonsus, 
and Piolemy. 

well worth examining, as atten- 
tive inspection will show that 
another crater has burst the 
original wall, and has itself in 
turn been intruded on by a 
more minute one still. Here, 
again, we are able to trace the 
chronological sequence of the 
successive eruptions. A strange 
formation, known as 'Straight 
Wall/ but looking (when the 
moon is eight or nine days old) 
like a stag's horn on the top of 
an alpenstock, will be noted 
not far to the east of Thebit. 
And now we arrive at that 
truly superb triple system, 
Arzachel (204), Alphonsus 
(207), and Ptolemy (208). 

Hosted by 



opens by clefts and valleys into Ptolemy— an enormous 
walled plain of 115 miles in diameter. The conspicuous 
crater in its floor will at once strike the eye. In Alphonsus, 
the chief object in the interior is a mountain ; while in 
Arzachel both a mountain and a crater will be noted by the 
observer. In our sketch above, Alpetragius (205) will be 
seen to have its interior wholly immersed in shadow. This 
beautiful crater is about 27 miles across, and is so compara- 
tively deep as to be only free from shadow for less than a 
week during the entire lunation. Herschel (212) is a fine 
ring-plain, 24 miles in diameter, with a central mountain. 
Rhaeticus (104) is noticeable as lying actually on the lunar 
equator. Godin (103) and Agrippa (102), two ring-plains 
of 23 and 27 miles in diameter respectively, are fine objects 
when seen near the terminator. The observer should care- 
fully examine that curious object Hyginus (93) and its 
neighbourhood about the time of the first quarter, employ- 
ing for this purpose as high a power as his telescope will 
bear (say 160). He will note the curious rill running right 
through the crater, the snail- shaped or spiral mountain just 
to the north of it, a brilliant ridge to the west of this again, 
and so on. Hereabouts it is that the alleged discovery of 
the depression known as ' Hyginus N.' was made. The 
incipient observer with a three-inch telescope must not, how- 
ever, blame either himself or his instrument should he fail 
to distinguish this mysterious object. Manilius (95) is a 
fine object under proper illumination. Its diameter is 25^- 
miles. The Sea of Serenity, at which we now arrive (H), 
contains numerous objects to reward the observer. Among 
them is the curious one, Linne (74), which, save when 
almost on the terminator, presents the appearance of a 
minute whitish cloud, or little smudge of light. It may be 
found on a line drawn from Pliny (61) through Bessel (73). 
The two splendid craters, Eudoxus (77) and Aristotle (78) 
here drawn, present a grand spectacle when near the 
boundary of light and darkness, either with a waxing or a 
waning moon. My own sketch on the next page was made 


when the sun was rather too high above their horizon. Under 
suitable illumination Aristotle will be seen to be surrounded 
by radiating chains of hills. Cassini (81) is a curious object 
about the time of the moon's first quarter. Its diameter is 
about 36 miles, and it contains a ring-plain, some nine miles 
across, within it. The edge of the ring of Cassini must be 
considerably serrated or cut into peaks and spires. With 
Archimedes (120), Aristillus (83), and Autolycus (84) we 
shall conclude our work to-night. The examination of the 
region in which they are situated may well afford us an 
entire evening's occupation on a future occasion. 

Fig. 15. — Eudoxus and Aristotle. Fig. t6.— Autolyrus. Aristillus, 

and Archimedes. 

Archimedes is a comparatively shallow ring-plain of 50 
miles in diameter. The inside, with our instrumental means, 
will appear quite smooth ; but powerful telescopes show 
minute craterlets and spots in it. When, however, this great 
plain is fully illuminated, a three-inch telescope will show 
that the floor is striped or streaked with alternate light and 
darker bands. Archimedes is a grand object when the sun 
is either rising or setting upon it. Aristillus, 34 miles across, 
has a central mountain, shown in our sketch. Under rather 
more oblique illumination, ridges, like lava streams, may be 
seen radiating from the outer ring. Autolycus, 23 miles in 
diameter, is tolerably deep, but calls for no more special 
description here. 

Hosted byLjOOQLe 

the moon: 


Night Four. 

To the north-west of Cassini (described on p. 30) lie the 
Lunar Alps (80 in our map), a range of mountains possessing 
a much more terrestrial character than the majority of objects 
visible on the moon's surface. They start from the neigh- 
bourhood of Cassini, and extend with a very remarkable 
interruption, immediately to be spoken of, nearly, if not 
quite, to Plato. The interruption of which I have just 
spoken takes the form of an enormous wedge-shaped valley, 
between eighty and ninety miles long, and varying in width 
from three and a half to six miles. Our sketch represents 
this region as it appears with a power of 120, the age of the 
moon being 7*58 days. 

The eastern side of the valley is the steeper of the two. 
The highest of the mountain masses lie to the west of the 
huge cleft, the eastern range, however, increasing in magni- 
tude as it approaches Plato (132). The sun was just rising 
on this last-named superb formation at the time the drawing 
above was made ; and its interior, as will be seen, was 
plunged in the blackness of night. While scrutinising this 
part of the moon's surface, the student may direct his at- 
tention to the two interesting ring-plains to the north — 

Fig. 17.— The Valley of the Alps, and Sunrise on Plato. 
Moon's Age, 7*58 days. 


Archytas (46) and Timseus (170).. Plato itself, and its 
vicinity, present a most interesting region for examination 
during the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth days of the 
moon's age ; as they do (though at a most inconvenient 
hour) when she is twenty-one or twenty-two days old. This 
great walled plain measures sixty miles across, and is notable, 
when fully illuminated, for its steel-grey tint. Its surround- 
ing wall is broken in places, and exhibits very little of that 
series of descents in terraces which we shall find by-and-by 
in Eratosthenes, Copernicus, &c. A variety of streaks and 
spots have been detected upon the very level floor by the 
aid of large and powerful telescopes ; but by far the larger 
proportion of these details are hopelessly beyond the reach 
of the observer with such an instrument as that whose use 
is presupposed. Under suitable illumination, the shadows 
of three huge peaks on the western wall will be seen cast 
upon the floor ; as will that of an even higher one from the 
eastern wall out on to the very broken surface of the Mare 
beyond. It is, so far, an inexplicable fact, that, as the sun 
rises on the interior plain of Plato, it follows the usual law 
of getting brighter until the sun has attained an altitude of 
20 0 , or thereabouts ; after which it darkens very notably 
and perceptibly until shortly after full moon. South of 
Plato stands that absolutely isolated peak, Pico (131), in the 
dark grey Sea of Showers. As it is some 8,000 feet in height, 
it casts a tremendously long shadow under the oblique 
illumination either of sunrise or sunset, and forms a most 
conspicuous object. Timocharis (121) is worth looking at 
for its terraced wall. The glorious mountain chain of the 
Apennines (85, 87, 92, in our map) presents, like the Alps 
of which I have spoken above, a very decidedly more 
terrestrial character than the vast majority of lunar objects. 
We may regard this superb range as starting in the north 
from Cape Hadley (87), which rises more than 15,000 feet 
from the plain at its base, although they will be seen to trend 
in a south-westerly direction from it. Following them, 
however, in their eastern course round the Sea of Showers, 

Hosted by 



we come to Bradley (89), a mountain 13,600 feet in height, 
and to Huyghens (90), the loftiest of their peaks, attaining 
an altitude of some 20,000 feet. The spectacle presented 
by this range of mountains — for the observation of which a 
power of 160 may be employed on a fine night — with their 
glittering and corrugated highlands, and the serrated 
shadows cast by their peaks on the plain beneath, is a 
wonderfully beautiful one, and will repay the most earnest 
attention the student can give to it. The projection of this 
noble ridge beyond the illuminated part of the moon, about 
the time of first quarter, is easily discernible with the 
naked eye by moderately sharp-sighted people. It may be 
held to terminate with Eratosthenes (no), the description 
of which, however, I must reserve for our succeeding night. 

Night Five. 

Eratosthenes, of which I spoke at the conclusion of our 
fourth night's work as terminating the magnificent chain of 
the lunar Apennines, pre- 
sents a beautiful spectacle 
about the ninth day of the 
moon's age. The accom- 
panying drawing was made 
with a power of 160, when 
the moon's age was 9^23 
days. The diameter of this 
finely terraced formation is 
about thirty-seven and a half 
miles, and its walls will be 
seen to be very rugged. The 
three central peaks, top, are 
conspicuously shown under this illumination. It is curious 
that a formation presenting such strongly marked features 
when lighted obliquely by the rising or setting sun, should 
be by no means easy to find at full moon. . South-east 
of Eratosthenes will be noted a deep mountain range 


Fig. 18. — Eratosthenes. Mocrfs Age, 
9*23 days. 


terminating in a ring-plain, whose walls are only some 130 feet 
or so high. Hence it is only visible during a short period 
of favourable illumination, and forms a very severe test of 
the defining power of a three-inch telescope, and of the keen- 
ness of the observer's vision. The height of the connecting 
ridge of mountains is some 4,470 feet. As Ben Nevis is 
4,406 feet, and Snowdon only 3,571 feet high, this may 
suffice to furnish a scale whereby the student may estimate 
the dimensions of the leading features of this neighbourhood. 
Schroter (106), or rather, its northern vicinity, should be 
carefully looked at when near to the terminator, for the 
strange system of ramparts sloping off on either side of a 
central one, which Gruithuisen believed to be artificial, but 
which, in reality, consists of a series of. parallel valleys. 
Parry (217), Bonpland (218), and Fra Mauro (219) are 
more or less imperfect ring-plains, which present a curious 
appearance when pretty near the terminator. Pitatus (186) 
and Hesiod (187) are a pair of huge craters — or rather 
ring-plains — connected by a pass. The northern wall of 
the former will be seen to be imperfect, while the southern 
wall is separated from Tycho, which we are immediately to 
examine, by a rugged mass of mountain peaks. The two 
most notable peculiarities in Hesiod are, a central crater in 
the floor, and a cleft (shown in our map), running into the 
Sea of Clouds. And now we arrive at what has been aptly 
called by the late lamented Prebendary Webb ' the metro- 
politan crater of the moon,' Tycho (180), reference to the 
system of streaks emanating from which has been once or 
twice previously made. This splendid formation, visible as 
a white spot to the naked eye at full moon, measures fifty- 
four miles and a quarter across, and exhibits an elaborately 
terraced wall, some 16,000 feet high, on the east side, and 
upwards of 17,000 feet in height in its western portion. In 
fig. 19 I have purposely abstained from any attempt to 
delineate the extremely disturbed and rugged region sur- 
rounding Tycho, confining myself strictly to drawing the 
crater itself, 



The central hill shown below is between 5>ooo and. 6,000 
feet high, its conical shadow being very conspicuous at the 
time our drawing was made. The 
inextricable mass of craters, hil- 
locks, pits, and irregularities in 
the immediate neighbourhood of 
Tycho, almost defies any attempt 
to draw or map it. The wonder- 
ful system of light- rays, radiating 
from this great crater, extends 
over at least a quarter of the 
visible hemisphere of the moon. 
Some of them may be traced 
to the southern limb, and doubtless extend beyond it 
into that hemisphere which is always hidden from the 
terrestrial observer. One tremendous ray passes through 
the Sea of Serenity, the craters 70 and 73 in our map lying 
upon it. Another very conspicuous one connects Tycho 
with the interesting formation Bullialdus (213). It is a 
notable fact, that while these rays, in nearly every other 
instance, pursue their course through hill, valley, crater, and 
plain, without deviation or interruption, the crater Saussure 
(196) has deflected one of them, and caused it apparently to 
bend round its southern wall What these stupendous bands 
are, can only be regarded, at present, as a mystery. Nasmyth 
considers them to be cracks filled up with molten lava from 
the moon's interior ; but, arguing from their terrestrial 
analogues, trap-dykes, we should expect to find them pro- 
jecting, more or less, above parts of the lunar surface, and, 
as a necessary consequence, casting shadows, when on, or 
near, the terminator. As a matter of fact we find them 
everywhere absolutely level with the regions which they 
traverse. Of whatever material they are composed, its 
reflective power must be very high, inasmuch as the ray 
system of Tycho traverses the (in many cases) huge and 
complicated formations, Sasserides (183), Gauricus (185), 
Heinsius (190), Wilhelm I. (191), Longomontanus (192), 

d 2 

Fig. 19. — Tycho. Moon's Age, 
9/24 days. 


Clavius (193), Maginus (195), Orontius (197), Nasir-ed-din 
(198), Lexell (199), Walter (200), Moretus (262), Stofler 
(354), and Maurolycus (358), all of which are most con- 
spicuous objects when obliquely lighted ; but which, one 
and all, disappear wholly at full moon, or under vertical 
illumination ! The late Professor Nichol, amid much 
which, after all, amounted merely to assertion, did point out 
one valuable piece of evidence furnished by these rays ; 
and that is, the proof afforded by their continuous visibility, 
and the homogeneous character of their brightness through- 
out their course, that the reflective substance of which they 
are composed is absolutely everywhere uncovered. Did 
anything in the shape of vegetation, for example, exist in 
the moon, it must obscure portions of these light streaks. 
That they pass undimmed, then, from their origin to their 
termination, shows plainly enough that they traverse ' a 
rocky desert, devoid of life or living thing.' Here our night's 
work may cease. We shall turn our telescope on Copernicus 
(112) as soon as it is favourably illuminated. 

Night Six. 

When the moon is nine or ten days old, the Bay of 
Rainbows (P in our map) presents a perfectly charming 
spectacle to the observer. This great, dark, semicircular 
area appears absolutely level in the instrument we are using, 
but is surrounded by a mass of stupendous cliffs. It mea- 
sures, from Cape La Place (134) to Cape Heraclides (135), 
nearly 135 miles. Heraclides rises some 4,000 feet above 
t'.e level of the bay, but is as a mere hillock compared with 
some of the neighbouring highlands. As we travel in an 
easterly direction we arrive at Sharp (139), 15,000 feet in 
height, and some of the peaks in this chain probably attain 
an altitude approaching to 20,000 feet. Nearly due south 
of Cape La Place lie two little, but exceedingly deep craters 
— the eastern one of which, Helicon, is marked 129 in the 
map. And now we arrive at a region covered with systems 

Hosted by 



of light- streaks, akin to those described on p. 35 as emanat- 
ing from Tycho. Euler (125), a fine ring-plain, 19 miles 
in diameter, with a central peak, is the centre of one of 
these systems of rays. Tobias Mayer (117), 22 miles across, 
is an interesting object under suitable illumination. Of all 
the formations, however, in this region of the lunar surface, 
there is nothing to compare with that superb one, Coper- 
nicus (112), our sketch of which 
was taken with a power of 160, 
when the moon's age was 10*27 
days. This magnificent ring- 
plain measures 56 miles across. 
There are, altogether, eight 
peaks rising from the interior — 
three bright ones, and four less 
so. With the instrument em- 
ployed, however, and under the 
conditions of illumination then 
obtaining, two only of these 
were, as will be seen, visible 
at the epoch of our drawing. 
The terraced character of the 
wall is conspicuous enough, 
even in a 3-in. telescope, as is the disturbed and com- 
plicated character of the region immediately surrounding 
it. Two deep craters south of Copernicus, approximating 
in appearance to the figure 8, will at once strike the 
eye. So also will a conspicuous peak on the western 
wall, which is between" 11,000 and 12,000 ft. high. The 
somewhat angular character of the contour of the wall is 
well seen from the shadows cast towards the east. Other 
features will strike the attentive observer. At full moon, 
Copernicus is seen to be the centre of a system of 
light-streaks, uniting with similar ones from other forma- 
tions to which we shall hereafter refer. It is worthy of note 
that the streaks extending in a westerly direction from 
Copernicus are the most numerous ; though those which 

Fig. 20. Copernicus. 
Moon's Age, io'2j clays. 


lie towards the north are individually more conspicuous. 
There is an enormous number of tiny craters between 
Copernicus and Eratosthenes (no) ; but even the largest 
of these require favourable illumination and conditions to 
be seen in our instrument. Reinhold (114), 31 miles across, 
will repay scrutiny while the telescope is turned on this part 
of the moon's visible disc. Euclid (221) and Landsberg 
(222) furnish examples of craters surrounded by a kind of 
nimbus or light-ring. This, as will be seen on examination, 
differs in appearance from the streaks emanating from Tycho, 
Copernicus, Kepler, and Aristarchus. Kepler (144), by the 
way, may be here referred to as a crater, close upon 22 
miles across, the centre of a great system of light-streaks, 
uniting with those from Copernicus. Close to Euclid lie 
the Riphaean Mountains (220). Under oblique illumina- 
tion they strongly suggest an exaggerated, or caricatured, 
bas-relief of a llama or giraffe. One of the deepest craters 
in the Sea of Clouds is Bullialdus (213), to which a light- 
streak extends (as mentioned on page 35) from Tycho (180). 
This is 38 \ miles across, with finely terraced walls of con* 
siderable breadth, and a fine central mountain 3,000 feet 
high. The considerable crater or ring-plain, breaking into 
the southern wall, too, will at once strike the eye, while a 
very similar one (but detached from Bullialdus proper) 
will be noted to the south of this again. Campanus (226), 
a ring 30^ miles across, in this neighbourhood, is chiefly 
remarkable for the darkness of its interior. Hainzel (237) is 
a kind of pear-shaped ring-plain, 55 miles in its longest dia- 
meter, with high and precipitous walls rising some 11,600 ft. 
in places. The wall of Capuanus (238), too, will repay 
examination under suitable illumination. Capuanus is one 
of the comparatively few craters that remain conspicuous 
and identifiable when the moon is full. We are now in the 
neighbourhood of the Sea of Moisture (T in our map). The 
student may begin his examination of this region with the 
large bay in this ' sea/ Hippalus (225). The chief interest, 
however, attaching to this locality resides in the wonderful 

Hosted by 



system of ' rills,' or narrow and tortuous clefts, existing to 
the west of Hippalus. The majority of. these require a large 
instrument for their detection, but one or two of them are 
within the reach of a three-inch telescope. when the moon is 
between nine and ten days old. The formation of Vitello 
(229) seems to afford an illustration of the vulgar phrase* ' a 
wheel within a wheel,' inasmuch as the outer ring plain en- 
closes another one, from the interior of which rises a moun- 
tain, 1,600 ft. or 1,700 ft. high. With the examination of 
Gassendi (232), on the northern boundary of the Sta of 
Moisture, we shall conclude another night's work. - 

Our sketch of this fine and interesting formation was 
made with a power of 160, the moon being 11*24 days old, 
and Gassendi very nearly on the 
terminator. The diameter of this 
great walled plain is fifty-five 
miles. The height of its sur- 
rounding cliffs varies greatly ; in 
places they rise to an altitude of 
some 10,000 feet, while towards 
the south, as will be seen in the 
drawing I give, they diminish to 
a twentieth part of that height. 
It is worthy of remark that Madler 
asserts that the floor of Gassendi 
is in its northern part quite 2,000 
feet above the level of the almost 
adjoining Sea of Moisture. It will 
be observed how the northern part 
of the wall has been destroyed by the subsequent eruption in 
which the great spoon-shaped ring-plain shown was formed. 
At the epoch of our sketch, the three central mountain masses, 
rising from the principal plain, were conspicuously shown. 
It will be seen that the westernmost of these is the largest 
and highest, the tips of the others only peeping, as it were, 
out of its shadow. This is a formation which may be ad- 
vantageously studied continuously during the eleventh and 

Fig. 2i. — Gassendi. 
Moon's Age, 11*24 clays. 


twelfth days of the moon's age, as it exhibits so many com- , 
plicated features ; and it is most instructive to the beginner 
to note how these come into view and alter in aspect with 
advancing sunlight. Moreover, the student should observe 
it in different states of the moon's libration. 1 The changes 
produced in the aspect of formations in the neighbourhood 
of the moon's limb from this cause are most striking and 

Night Seven. • 

The light of the rising sun continues to creep over the 
moon's disc, and we are rapidly approaching her eastern 
limb ; in other words, she is now entering that phase 
denominated full in the almanacs, when the whole of her 
surface which is turned towards the earth is simultaneously 
visible. For reasons before stated, however (p. 1 6), this is 
the very worst aspect under which details can be examined, 
or even identified ; and I shall, therefore, describe the 
leading formations which still remain to be spoken of, as 
they appear when tolerably near the terminator. And here 
I may note that ring-plains and mountains situated on, or 
very near, the actual visible limb of the moon, are seen in a 
much more natural manner by the terrestrial observer than 
those more centrally placed on her disc ; since they are, of 
course, looked at much more sideways ; like our own 
mountain ranges as we view them from the surface of the 
earth. The student will be struck with this if he will 
go carefully round the eastern (and especially the north- 
eastern) limb of the moon within a day or two of her being 
full. It is time, however, that we began our examination of 
such individual objects as offer points of peculiar interest. 
Beginning from the south, we shall be struck with the 
Dorfel Mountains (246 in our map), seen in profile on the 
actual limb of the moon. The three most conspicuous 

1 For an explanation of lunar libration see The Moon> by the 
editor of Knowledge (Longmans & Co.), pp. 118 el spq. 

Hosted by 



peaks of this tremendous range are believed to exceed 
26,000 feet in height. The highest mountain in the world, 
Mount Everest, in the Himalayas, is 29,000 feet in altitude, 
but did this bear the same proportion to the earth's diameter 
that the Dorfel Mountains do to the moon's, then would it 
be 106,079 feet, or more than twenty miles in perpendicular 
height. In this neighbourhood Phocylides (242) may be 
looked at as a considerable walled plain, with a flat interior. 
I, however, mention it here chiefly as a guide to that curious 
object, Wargentin (243), which looks like an extremely 
truncated column, some 54 miles in diameter. Webb aptly 
compares this to ' a large, thin cheese.' When the moon is 
eleven or twelve days old, Schickard (239), an enormous 
walled plain, will repay scrutiny. From north to south this 
measures some 134 miles, and is nearly as broad, though, 
of course, it is considerably foreshortened as we view it. 
The inferior is very nearly level, but a three-inch telescope 
will show the diversity of shade which characterises it. 
Mersenius (231) is a fine ring-plain more than 41 miles 
across, and contains various small hills, craterlets, &c, 
quite beyond the power of our instrument. What will strike 
the young observer is the aspect of its floor, which is con- 
vex, like a watch-glass. Just as Fracastorius (372) appears 
as a bay bounding the southern extremity of the Sea of 
Nectar (p. 25), so does Letronne (224), formed by the 
mountains extending from Gassendi, appear at one ex- 
tremity of the Sea of Storms (Q). The huge dark plain 
Grimaldi (272) is nearly 148 miles long by 129 broad, and 
would have ranked as a ' sea ' had it been situated near the 
centre of the moon, instead of close to her limb. Grimaldi 
is even darker than Plato, and, as I have previously re- 
marked (p. 22), may often be seen on the dark limb of the 
moon when illuminated by earthshine. Riccioli (273) is .. 
another enormous walled plain, and is very nearly as dark 
in parts as Grimaldi itself. Just to the south-east of these 
two last-named formations lie the Lunar Cordilleras (274) 
and the D'Alembert Mountains (275). What is probably a 


portion of this latter chain reappears as the Rook Moun- 
tains (276). Rather further south along the limb, when the 
moon is nearly thirteen days old, the series of ring plains, 
Lohrmann (153)? Hevelius (154), and Cavalerius (155), offers 
an interesting, spectacle. Hevelius has a convex interior, 
but by no means so regular as that of Mersenius, nor does 
the convexity fill the enclosed area in the same way. 
Leaving the moon's limb now for the Ocean of Storms, we 
arrive at the most brilliant spot on the whole surface, 
Aristarchus (148), of which I have spoken before (p. 22), as 
conspicuous on the dark limb when the moon is young. I 
had a curious illustration of the 
extreme brightness of this forma- 
tion on the occasion in which the 
accompanying drawing was made 
(the nkht of August 15, 1883). 

Huge, black, cumulus clouds 
were driving at intervals across 
the sky, and several times when 
the moon was absolutely blotted 
out from view in the field of the 
telescope, Aristarchus continued 
to shine like a small ill-defined 
planet. It is difficult or. im- 
possible to reproduce this extraordinary lustre in a wood- 
engraving ; it is actually unpleasant to the eye even in a 
three-inch telescope. The diameter of Aristarchus is twenty- 
eight miles, and its walls are terraced — albeit the ter- 
racing is seen with considerable difficulty, owing to the 
glare. It has a concave interior with a central moun- 
tain — if possible even more brilliant than the internal 
walls themselves. Its eastern wall extends into a table-land 
by which it is connected with Herodotus ( 149). This last- 

1 The student is recommended to pass a pale wash of Indian ink 
over the interior of the crater Herodotus (the right-hand one in the 
sketch above), as the engraver has mistakenly made it of the same tint 
as the surrounding Mare. 

Fig. 22.— Aristarchus and Hero- 
dotus. Moon's Age, 12 "86 days.- 

Hosted by 




named formation is less than 24 miles across, and is very 
notably darker than Aristarchus. The chief object of 
interest in connection with Herodotus is the curious ser- 
pentine valley or cleft which originates in it, and which was 
well seen when our sketch was made. Schmidt asserts that 
this is 1,663 feet deep in places. It enters Herodotus at a 
point concealed by shadow at the epoch of our drawing. 

With this will terminate our description of the moon's 
surface. I have not considered it necessary to make more 
than casual reference here to the aspect of lunar formations 
after full moon, inasmuch as it differs only from that which 
they present before full moon in that, while in the latter 
case the sun is rising on them and their shadows are cast to 
the east, after full moon the sun is setting to them and 
their shadows fall towards the west. Figs. 8, 9, and 10 
(p. 25) will sufficiently illustrate this. As I began by saying, 
I am not writing a treatise on selenography, and my object 
has merely been to invite the attention of the beginner to 
certain typical lunar formations, which can be observed 
with such an instrument as has. been employed for the 
purpose of this work. Our map will in itself supply the 
student with ample work for a considerable period, inasmuch 
as it will enable him to identify four hundred of the prin- 
cipal formations on the face of the moon. The possessor 
of a telescope whom I may have succeeded in interesting in 
die study of lunar detail will probably procure Neison's 
great book on ' The Moon,' a work containing more detailed 
information with reference to selenography proper than any 
one extant in the English language. 




There are few more curious, instructive, nay, even startling 
sights in the heavens than the occultation of a fixed star (or 
more rarely of a planet) by the moon. When this occurs 
at the dark limb of our satellite, its suddenness is such 
as not infrequently to extort an exclamation from, as it 
invariably causes a start by, the observer who witnesses it 
for the first time. The moon, as everybody knows, com- 
pletes a sidereal revolution round the earth in about 27*32 
days ; in other words, that period elapses from the time of 
her quitting any given star to her return to it again. It may 
be worth while to mention incidentally that while the moon 
has thus been travelling in an easterly direction through the 
sky, the sun has also (apparently) been moving, much more 
slowly, in the same direction ; so that if -we assume that the 
sun and moon are in conjunction (the ' new moon ' of the 
almanacs), at the end of the 27*32 days the moon will not 
have overtaken him ; in fact, she will have to go on for 2 "2 1 
days before she comes up with him, and it is new moon 
again. It is this period of 29*53 days which forms the 
lunar or synodical (Greek, SwoSos, a meeting) month of 
the books on astronomy. In thus describing her monthly 
path over the celestial vault, it is quite obvious that she 
must pass between us and such stars as lie in her course ; 
the stars being — for our present purpose — at an infinite 
distance, while she is only some 239,000 miles from us. 
Her orbit is, however, very far indeed from being a fixed 

Hosted by 


circle in the sky. Its mean inclination to the ecliptic is 
about 5 0 9' ; but its nodes (the points where it cuts the 
ecliptic or plane of the earth's orbit) are perpetually shift- 
ing. The moon's perigee, or nearest point to the earth 
is shifting ; and, in fact, to put it shortly, at the end of any 
month the moon does not return accurately to that point 
of the sky from which she set out. Were the path of the 
moon a definite and unalterable one in the heavens, she 
would, of course, occult the same stars over and over again? 
month after month. As a matter of fact, she only does this, 
and that but approximately, after 223 lunations — a period 
known to the Chaldaeans of old as the Saros. Very well, 
then, travelling thus, as I have said, from west to east, her 
eastern limb is, of course, the leading one, or that which 
covers, hides, or occults the objects lying in her path. From 
new moon to full moon this limb is unilluminated, and 
the effect of the extremely sudden extinction of a star when 
the dark limb hides it is, as I began by saying, of an abso- 
lutely startling character. ' In a moment, in the twinkling 
of an eye/ the star which shone as a brilliant point in the 
sky is blotted out ; and its place seemingly knows it no 
more, until it reappears from behind the opposite or illumi- 
nated edge of the moon. After full moon, of course, the 
eastern limb is illuminated, so that the disappearance 
takes place at the bright edge, and the star on its reappear- 
ance starts instantaneously from behind the dark limb. A 
few days on either side of new moon, when the dark limb 
is visible by earthshine— or, in the popular form of expres- 
sion, we can see the old moon in the new moon's arms — 
a new charm is added to the spectacle of an occultation, in- 
asmuch as before full moon the faintly lighted dark limb 
can be actually seen approaching the star which it is soon 
to obliterate. Now it fortunately happens that occultations 
are phenomena peculiarly within the range and capability of 
a three-inch telescope. Moreover, should the owner of 
such an instrument happen to possess a trustworthy chro- 
nometer or regulator, he may not only derive great personal 


pleasure and amusement from the observation of the 
phenomena of which I am treating, but may render real 
and enduring service to science by the publication of his 
observations of the occultations which are predicted in the 
* Nautical Almanac.' It may encourage the student and 
young observer to be assured that observations of occulta- 
tions made with a three- inch telescope and an accurate 
chronometer, may be of real service in correcting the lunar 
tables, and the theory generally. As an illustration of the 
preceding remarks, I will take the occultation of X Gemi- 

happened at a point in the bright limb which may be 
found in the engraving by opening the legs of a pair of 
compasses 0*55 in., and placing one leg on the lowest 
illuminated point of the moon's disc ; then will the other 
leg cut the bright limb at the spot at which it took place. 
It occurred about nh. 12m. 9s. p.m. Let us now turn to 
p. 435 of the ' Nautical Almanac ' for that year, and see in 
what form this phenomenon is there predicted, with a view 
to explaining and utilising such prediction for the information 
and instruction of the student. 

Fig. 23. -Occultation of v Geminorum by 
the Moon, March 6, 1884, power 80. 

norum by the moon, 
which happened on 
Thursday, March 6, 
1884. Our sketch re- 
presents the aspect of 
affairs at ioh. 10m. 4s. 
p.m., at the instant of 
the star's disappear- 
ance at the moon's 
dark limb, as seen in 
a three-inch telescope 
armed with a Huy- 
ghenian (inverting) eye- 
piece magnifying 80 

The reappearance 

Hosted by 






Star's Name 


Angle from 


Angle from - 


| Magi 










Mar. 6 

A Geminorum 


h. m. 

9 10 

h. m. 

10 10 





h. m. 
10 11 

h. m. 
11 11 



*#* The angles are reckoned towards the right hand round the circumference of 
the moon's image, as seen in an inverting telescope. 

The first column gives the date ; the second, the star's 
name ; the third, its magnitude ; the fourth, the sidereal 
time— or that shown by an ordinary observatory clock. — at 
which the disappearance takes place ; and the fifth, the 
corresponding instant of mean solar time at which the star 
vanishes. The sixth and seventh columns require more de- 
tailed explanation. The * north point' of the table is that 
point of the moon's limb 
cut by a circle passing 
through the north pole 
and the moon's centre. 
It is in real truth the 
south point of the lunar 
limb ; but it is uppermost 
in the field of view, and 
is known technically as 
the N. point. From this, 
angles are measured right 
round the moon's circum- 
ference, in the direction 
in which the hands of a watch move. Our second figure will, 
illustrate this. This will render the mode of measurement 
intelligible at a glance. Here, evidently, o° is the moon's 
(technical) N. point, and the measurement of angles from it is 
indicated by the figures. Suppose, for example, that we found 
from the tables that the angle from N. point of some star at 


disappearance was 6o° ; then should we know that it would 
be occulted at the point marked a in our diagram. Were 
the angle 79 0 , it would disappear at 116 0 at c, and so on. 
Were, on the other hand, the angle of reappearance given 
as 245 0 from N. point, d would be the point in the limb 
from which it would emerge, as would e were such angle 
292 0 . These 4 angles from north point' are employed 
with telescopes mounted equatorially (Chap I. p. 5). When 
the observer has only an altazimuth mounting (loc. cit.), as 
is usually the case with a three-inch telescope, the angles 
must be measured from the moon's vertex. This, in effect, 
is the point in her limb at the top (in an inverting telescope) 
cut by a plumb-line passing through her centre. I have so 
far spoken as though the disappearance of stars was in all 
cases instantaneous, and so, as far as my own experience 
goes, it is. Other observers, though, have seen the very 
curious phenomenon of the apparent projection of the star 
on to the (almost invariably bright) limb of the moon. It 
is a noteworthy fact that this curious appearance has been 
practically confined to red stars, like Aldebaran ; but this 
goes a very little way in helping towards a solution of so 
anomalous an effect. The occupations of planets are 
comparatively rare phenomena, and should be sedulously 
watched whenever they occur. An occultation of Venus 
occurred about three o'clock in the afternoon on February 
29, 1884 ; but no intimation or prediction of it whatever was 
given in the 'Nautical Almanac' ! Occultations of Saturn 
and Jupiter afford delightful spectacles to the observer ; 
the extreme sharpness of their superficial detail, where 
actually in contact with the moon's limb, entirely negativing 
any suspicion of a lunar atmosphere. Irrespectively alto- 
gether, however, of the mere beauty and interest of the 
phenomena of lunar occultations, and their entire suitability 
for observation with our instrumental means, I would, in 
conclusion, once more insist on their scientific value. Made 
simultaneously at stations, the longitude of one of which is 

Hosted by 


well determined, they afford excellent (if somewhat operose) 
means of deducing that of the other. Moreover, as I have 
before said, if the student be the possessor of a chronometer 
indicating accurate Greenwich mean time, he may by his 
own unaided exertions render real help towards the improve- 
ment of the lunar theory, and perchance earn a niche in 
the Temple of Fame in days yet to come. 




Mercury in a three-inch telescope is, to speak as euphe- 
mistically as possible, a rather disappointing object. Nor is 
the reason far to seek. Even in inferior conjunction — when 
(save during the rare occasions of his transit over the sun's 
disc) he is, of course, invisible — his diameter scarcely ex- 
ceeds 10" ; while at the times of his greatest elongation — 
east or west of the sun, as the case may be— his little 
crescent only measures some 7" from cusp to cusp. Hence 
it becomes necessary to employ as high a power as our 
telescope will bear to get any idea of the planet's figure and 
general appearance ; while as to the detail alleged in astro- 
nomical works to have been seen on his surface, the pos- 
sessor of such an instrument as that with which our obser- 
vations are made must be content to walk by faith, and not 
by sight. The explanation, which will be found in the next 
chapter, of the phases exhibited by Venus is equally appli- 
cable, mutatis mutandis, to those shown by Mercury, and 
the reader is requested to turn to what is said in the place 
cited, for the better apprehension of what is to follow. 
Mercury then attained his greatest elongation west of the 
sun at 7 p.m. on September 18, 1885, and hence, at the 
date of our observation, he was about three days and a half 
from it. A glance at the figure will show that the illumi- 
nated portion of the planet visible was decidedly smalhr than 
it should theoretically have been from the relative positions 

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of the Sun, Earth, and Mercury. As may be imagined, 
however, some attention is needed to detect this feature in 
so tiny a crescent as the planet presents. The shading 
towards the terminator, or ap- 
parent inner edge of the crescent, 
is both considerable and ill-de- 
fined. Whether this has its origin 
in the planet's atmosphere or not 
is by no means easy to determine. 
The student, after scrutinising 
Mercury, should turn his tele- 
scope upon Venus (should she 
be conveniently placed), the 
brilliance of whose light stands 
out in striking contrast to the Fig " 2S '~"^^ 1 ^ pt ' I5 ' l88s ' 
comparatively feeble illumination 

of her inner neighbour. Spots, streaks, &c. (whence a 
hypothetical rotation period has been deduced), and a blunt- 
ing of at least one of the horns of the crescentic planet 
have been seen, either objectively or in imagination, by 
many observers ; but, as I have hinted above, all such de- 
tail is hopelessly beyond the possessor of a small instru- 

As in the case of Venus, when Mercury is in or near 
either of his nodes at the time of inferior conjunction, he 
passes across the sun's disc — or, as it is technically said, 
' transits ' the sun as a black spot. With too light an 
eye-shade he shows well the notorious ligament or black 
drop (concerning which so much has been written in con- 
nection with transits of Venus) at his entry on and exit 
from the sun's face. An aureola or luminous ring round 
the black disc of the planet has also been seen while it has 
been crossing the sun ; while several observers of skill and 
repute have seen one, and even two, whitish spots on the 
dark disc of the planet itself under the same conditions. 
These phenomena are quite within the reach of such a 


telescope as that whose use I am presupposing; but, un- 
fortunately, the student will have to wait some time before 
attempting to verify such observations as those which I have 
just described, inasmuch as only two more transits of 
Mercury will occur during the present century : the first 
happening on May 9, 1891, and the next on November io, 

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The glorious planet we are now going to examine surpasses, 
under certain circumstances, every object in the sky in 
lustre ; and hence the poet, in saying that — 

Hesperus that led 
The starry host rode brightest, 

simply expressed a bald matter of scientific fact. About a 
month after she has attained what is called her greatest 
elongation east, or the same time before she acquires her 
greatest western elongation, she may be detected with the 
naked eye in the sunlit sky ; and, when in the former phase, 
casts a very perceptible shadow at night upon any white 
surface. Her great brilliance under these conditions renders 
her the most severe test of the achromatism of a telescope 
that we possess ; and an instrument must be perfect indeed 
that will exhibit an absolutely colourless image of her at 
this time. 

In order that the beginner may have an intelligent idea 
of what he is going to look at, it will be necessary to recall 
a few elementary facts in connection with the orbits of the 
Earth and Venus. Everybody — at least, everybody who 
will read these lines— knows that Venus goes round the sun 
in an orbit inside our own ; in other words, her mean dis- 
tance from our mighty centre of light and heat is 66| mil- 
lions of miles, while ours is 92^ millions. She travels through 
this orbit in 2247 days. Now, if we were standing still, 


she would go through all her phases in this period ; and if 
she were in, say, inferior conjunction (i.e., in a line between 
the Earth and the sun) on any given day, after 2247 days 
she would return to the same spot. But the Earth itself 
goes round the sun in 365*26 days, of course in the same 
direction as Venus, so that what is called her synodic period 
(Greek, crvvoSos, a meeting), or time elapsing between one 
meeting with the Earth and the next, is really 583*92 days. 
For example, Venus was in inferior conjunction with the 
sun at 2 a.m. on July 12, 1884. Her next inferior conjunc- 
tion did not happen until 7 p.m. on February 18, 1886. 
Now, if we suppose her to be in inferior conjunction, and 
also in or near one of the nodes of her orbit, it is pretty 
evident that she will pass across the face of the sun as 
viewed from the Earth, and we shall have a transit of Venu^. 
With this phenomenon, however, we have but small concern 
here. It last happened on December 6, 1882, and will not 
recur until June 7, 2004, when the hand that pens these 
words and the eyes which rest upon them will alike be dust 
and ashes. If, though, the planet is far from her node at 
the time of inferior conjunction, then she passes above or 
below the sun as seen by us. On July 12, 1884, she was 
nearly 5 0 south of the sun's centre. Under these circum- 
stances, as we shall presently see, while nearly the whole of 
her lighted face must be turned towards the sun, yet an 
extremely narrow portion of her illuminated limb is percep- 
tible. As she travels to the westward of the sun after this 
as a morning star, more and more of the lighted part of her 
disc becomes visible ; until she assumes the appearance of 
the moon when in her first quarter; or, technically speak- 
ing, is 'dichotomised.' As will be seen by any one who- 
will draw a diagram or plan of Venus's orbit, her diameter 
must appear the largest at the time of her inferior con- 
junction, and must diminish just as her illuminated surface 
increases. After attaining her greatest elongation west of 
the sun (which can never exceed 47 0 15'), the planet appears 
to begin to move, back again, or from west to east, grows 

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smaller and smaller, and when her disc is becoming fully 
illuminated, disappears behind the sun in the glare of his 
light, as merely a rather big star. She is then said to be in 
superior conjunction. Emerging, after an interval, from 
his rays to the east of him, she becomes an evening star, 
and goes through all her phases in the reverse order, increas- 
ing in diameter as the area of her illuminated surface dimin- 
ishes. Attaining her greatest eastern elongation, and then 
turning back as a rapidly 
narrowing crescent, she 
finally returns to inferior 
conjunction again. This all 
being understood, we will, 
at last, go to the telescope. 

At 6 p.m., on May 2, 
Venus had attained her 
greatest elongation (45 0 27') 
east, and ei^ht days later 
the accompanying drawing 
was made, with a power of 
160, in a 3 -in. telescope. Fig. 26-venus, May 10, i£8 4 . 
Now two or three things will Power ' l6 °- 

Strike the observer who. will carefully scrutinise this sketch. 
Perhaps the first will be the great brilliance of the illuminated 
limb of the planet, and the way in which this contrasts with 
the inner portion or 'terminator,' shading off into the bright 
sky. This is very imperfectly shown in the engraving, where 
the inner edge is represented much too bright. The two little 
cusps, too, so sharp and bright, will certainly catch the eye, 
from the want of correspondence of their inner edges with the 
interior curve of the planet's lighted surface. All this seems 
indicative of a dense and extensive atmosphere surrounding 
Venus. One effect of the inner shading is worthy of note, 
and that is the effect it has in reducing the area of the planet 
which should be theoretically illuminated. If we draw a plan- 
of the orbit of Venus, we shall see that at her greatest elonga- 
tion she ought geometrically to be dichotomised, i.e., exactly. 


half full ; but it will be seen that in reality she is rather less 
than this, the degradation of light towards the terminator 
being pretty rapid. Observers of repute have seen the 
terminator jagged and- uneven, like that of the moon ; but it 
i.s too much to expect of a three-inch telescope that it should 
exhibit such difficult features as this. A blunting of one or 
both of the horns has also been perceived at times by various 
astronomers, both in this country and on the Continent 
And, what is of considerable interest to the possessors of 
instruments of the size employed for the purpose of these 
descriptions, very faint dusky spots and bright patches have 
been perceived from time to time in telescopes of the most 
varying apertures.; small ones showing these spots as well as 
— in fact, better than — some of the larger instruments. This 
may possibly arise from the general glare of light in a large 
objective or mirror deadening the eye to such delicate 
details. It is by the aid of these spots, real or imaginary, 
that the hypothetical period of rotation of Venus has been 

But, however beautiful and curious the spectacle may be 
which is presented by Venus in quadrature, it will scarcely 
interest the student so much as his first view of her in 
inferior conjunction. Our succeeding figure exhibits the 
planet as seen in the same instrument and with the same 
power as that employed to make our first sketch with. The 
contrast between these two aspects Of Venus will arrest the 
attention at once. The comparatively small half-moon has 
become converted into a hair-like glittering semicircle of, 
light, enclosing something which is certainly darker than 
the surrounding sky. The very abnormally hazy condition 
of the atmosphere which had persisted for many months was 
against the perception of any very delicate gradations of 
shade, so that the whole of the dark body of Venus was. 
invisible ; but the effect, difficult or impossible to reproduce 
in a wood-cut, was that of a disc, dark, where embraced by 
the crescent of ligh 4 -, and fading into the light of the sky 
outside or beyond the cusps. On the occasion of former 

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inferior conjunctions, the whole of the planet's dark limb 
has been unmistakably perceived. In order that it may be 
seen to the greatest advantage, a very small diaphragm 
should take the place of the ordinary one between the two 
lenses of the Huyghenian eye-piece. A blackened card 
disc with a fine hole made centrally in it with a red-hot 
needle answers capitally. The hot , needle burns the fringed 
edge of the perforation and leaves, it clean and sharp. The. 
smaller the hole, consistently with distinct vision, and the 
more sky light that is cut off, the sharper and better will 

Fig. 27.— Venus in Inferior Conjunction, July 11, 1884. Power, 160. 

the body of the planet appear. This little device will 
always be found useful when any body is to be viewed in 
bright sunlight. 

There is a queer story — or, perhaps, it would be more 
correct to say a series of queer stories — with reference to 
various observations of a satellite or companion to Venus, 
situated always close to the planet, sometimes on one side 
of her, sometimes on the other, but always exhibiting a 
phase identical with hers. The most feasible explanation of 
this is that it has had its origin in each case in what is called 


'a ghost* in the eye-piece, i.e. in a reflection of the planet's 
image from the convex surface of the eye-lens on to the 
plane surface of the field-lens, and so back to the eye of the 
observer. An observation made by Short, the famous op- 
tician, in 1740, who did use two different telescopes, seems 
the only one to throw any legitimate doubt upon this ex-> 
planation. M. Houzeau, the eminent Belgian astronomer, 
however, is so convinced of the objective reality of the 
various apparitions of this satellite, that in del et Terre for 
May 15, 1884, he gravely propounds the hypothesis that a 
l.ttle planet (which he provisionally names Neith) revolves 
round the sun in an orbit just exterior to that of Venus her- 
self. Here there is an opportunity for the student to dis- 
tinguish himself. He has only to watch Venus day and 
night, until he picks up this attendant, to do so. Whether, 
though, he succeeds or whether he fails in this attempt, he 
will find himself amply repaid for any amount of labour by 
the diversified but always beautiful appearance of the planet 
as she speeds on her path round the sun, and may find 
infinitely less profitable ways of spending his time than by 
the devotion of a daily half-hour to watching; Venus in a 
three-inch telescope. 

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The study of Areography (Greek "Aprj^ Mars), or minute 
Martial detail, can only be properly carried on by the aid of a 
telescope of considerable size and power. Notwithstanding 
this, we shall find that a good deal that is curious and instruc- 
tive in connection with the physical structure of this planet is 
well within the capabilities of the instrument we are using; 
and I propose in this chapter to examine such features of 
his surface as are susceptible of exhibition with only three 
inches of aperture. A haze of cirro-strati is drifting over 
the sky as I turn my telescope on to Mars; but this, 
really has the effect of subduing 
the general glare of the planet, 
sharpening such detail as is per-, 
ceptible, and improving definition 
generally., Compared with the 
mighty orb of Jupiter, Mars pre- 
sents such a small disc that we find 
it necessary rather to overpress 
magnifying power than otherwise, 
to see fairly the principal markings 
he exhibits. We arm then our 
instrument with a power of 204, and, on directing it. to 
the planet, behold the spectacle depicted in the above 

Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, the disc of Mars — in its pre- 
sent phase— appears circular. When Mars is in so-calleci 

Mars, Feb. 18, 
gh. 35m. G.M.T. Power, 204 


' quadrature ' with the sun, he will be very perceptibly 
gibbous (fig. 36, p. 81), but under no circumstances has any 
trustworthy measurement shown a sensible excess of his 
equatorial over his polar diameter. Dawes found the 
ellipticity absolutely imperceptible. Regarding then this 
circular disc, what do we see ? A bright white patch at the 
bottom — or north pole — of the planet is probably the first 
thing that will arrest the attention of the observer, contrast- 
ing as it does markedly with the general orange tint of the 
planet. Bounded on one side by the limb, this brilliant 
marking exhibits the form of a double convex lens. It is 
entirely surrounded on its southern, or upper edge, by a 
greenish- grey dark marking, from which rises another of a 
shape akin to that of the old-fashioned champagne-glass of 
the days of our fathers and grandfathers. Instead, however, 
of terminating in a symmetrical rim, the southern extremity 
of this bifurcates in a fashion which somewhat suggests the 
spreading of the wings of a sea gull. The central southern 
portion of this is the darkest part of it. Our sketch was 
made, as stated above, at gh. 35m. at night. Had I de- 
ferred it until four o'clock the next morning, the planet 
would have presented a very different aspect indeed ; for 
Mars rotates on his axis in 24JL 37m. 22735s. (thus taking 
a little more than half an hour longer than the Earth to 
complete one rotation), and from this cause, of course, 
fresh portions of his surface are presented to our view as 
the night advances, just as in the case of Jupiter. There is, 
however, this very notable difference between the markings 
on the two planets, that whereas, as stated on p. 67, the 
detail on Jupiter is in no legitimate sense permanent^ 
existing as it probably does in a vaporous and very mobile 
envelope of enormous extent, in Mars the markings are 
persistent, and certainly form parts of his actual solid (and 
liquid) surface ; so that maps of no inconsiderable accuracy 
have been formed of them. What, then, do they signify ? 
It seems in a high degree probable that, in looking at Mars, 
we are regarding a miniature of our own world. That the 



general surface of the planet may well represent land of a 
geological structure allied to the * Triassic,' or New Red 
Sandstone rocks so well displayed at Exmouth, Dawlish, 
and Teignmouth in this country ; that the darker markings 
are nothing but oceans, seas, straits, and lakes ; while the con- 
spicuous white patch at the pole has its origin in the exist- 
ence there of the huge tracts of glacier and snow-covered 
land and ice-locked sea of the Martial arctic regions. For, 
during the opposition of Mars in 1884, the north pole of the 
planet was turned towards the earth, and it will be seen, from 
the position of the planet's axis with reference to us, that his 
south pole was wholly hidden, from being on the other side of 
him. The reason for this is worthy of a brief examination. 
Mars goes round the sun in 686*98 days, the Earth de- 
scribing her orbit in 365*26 days; so that, being in opposi- 
tion at any given date, an interval of 779*84 days must 
elapse ere they return to it. At least, this is the mean 
period between two successive oppositions; but, owing to 
the great eccentricity of Mars' orbit, this varies as opposi- 
tions occur near his perihelion or aphelion (points of his 
nearest approach to and greatest recession from the sun) re- 
spectively. Moreover, the equator of Mars is inclined some 
2 7 0 to the plane of his orbit. As the inclination of our own 
equator is only 23^° to the ecliptic, it is evident that the 
vicissitudes of the Martial seasons must be more aggravated 
than in our own case. But we have spoken of this tilt of 
the planet's axis mainly for the purpose of pointing out that 
while at certain oppositions the north pole of the planet must 
be turned towards us, at others we must see his south pole ; 
while at intermediate points — answering to our terrestrial 
equinoxes — we must see both poles, just as in the circular 
maps of the earth which form the frontispieces to so many 
books on geography. The south pole of the planet, as I have 
said above, was wholly invisible at the date specified ; but, 
during the memorable opposition of 1877, a great white 
lenticular-shaped patch on the southern limb of Mars formed 
just as conspicuous a feature as the corresponding north 


polar one (then invisible) did in 1884. From all this it will 
be evident that to get a true idea of Areographical detail, we 
must watch, and carefully draw, Mars during several opposi- 
tions. It is remarkable to note what a curious change in the 
aspect of any given feature, far north or south of the equator 
of Mars, is produced by foreshortening Nothing but long- 
contmued observation and abiding faith in the irrefragable 
principles of perspective will enable the student to identify a 
given spot or marking when viewed under so very different an 
aspect. The best popular map extant of the leading Mar- 
tial details is the one given by Prebendary Webb on p. 146 
of his altogether admirable book, ' Celestial Objects for 
Common Telescopes.' It is, however, drawn on Mercator's 
projection, with its grossly exaggerated polar dimensions ; 
and the young observer must make allowance for this in 
using it for regions removed by any considerable distance 
from the equator. The great inverted conical marking 
shown in our sketch (p. 59) is chiefly composed of the 
Kaiser Sea. The thin arm stretching out to the left is a 
part of Flammarion Sea ; that to the right a portion of the 
Dawes Ocean. The Delambre Sea (confused by fore- 
shortening with Nasmyth Inlet to the right) forms the dark 
marking surrounding the snow-cap at the north pole (bottom) 
of the planet. Situated some 150 0 in longitude from the 
Kaiser Sea is a very notable marking in the southern hemi- 
sphere of Mars — unfortunately in an unfavourable position 
for the observer just now — which is called Terby Sea, and 
which, surrounded by Kepler Land, presents a somewhat 
ludicrous resemblance to an eye. In the absence, however, 
of a map, detailed descriptions of particular markings be- 
come merely nugatory. 

It only remains in conclusion to mention a few facts in 
connection with the general aspect of the planet. I have 
spoken of the very conspicuous white patches at or near the 
poles of Mars — patches occasionally so brilliant that irradia- 
tion causes them to appear as positively projecting slightly 


6 3 

beyond the outline of his limb. That these, as I have pre- 
viously intimated, consist of ice or snow, or both, the 
evidence afforded by the spectroscope seems to render 
practically certain, showing as it does the presence of large 
quantities of aqueous vapour in the Martial atmosphere. 
There is, however, a somewhat similar appearance, which I 
have, among others, myself observed, that of lenticular-shaped 
white markings round the limb, which are by no means so 
easily explicable. A very little attention will show the 
observer with the telescope that the ruddy tint of the 
planet's face is most marked towards the centre of the disc, 
and that the limb is notably paler (occasionally so much so 
as to seem nearly white, as was the case in the autumn of 
1879); but the markings of which I am now speaking are 
large white patches in the eastern and western limbs of 
Mars, for which it is anything but easy to account, though 
they are probably atmospheric. An extremely ingenious 
explanation of the general brightness of the limb will be 
found on page 65 of the ' Essays on Astronomy,' by Mr. 
R. A. Proctor. Mars has been described as a miniature 
of our own earth ; and undoubtedly he does present fea- 
tures connecting his physical structure more closely with 
ours than any other planet ; but still, irrespectively of 
size, there are differences which cannot fail to strike the 
thoughtful observer. The most salient of these is the 
difference of distribution of land and water. On the earth 
only about 51,500,000 square miles consist of dry land, 
while 145,500,000 square miles are covered by water. On 
Mars the land so far preponderates that the largest oceans, 
or rather seas, can only be described as more or less land- 
locked. Schiaparelli claims to have discovered a strange 
network of ' canals,' uniting various portions of the seas of 
the planet hitherto considered to be isolated ; but, admitting 
for argument's sake the objective reality of these features, 
they are hopelessly beyond the optical power we are em- 
ploying. I may mention, in conclusion, that a curious 


collateral indication of the existence of clouds, or vapour in 
some form, has been observed in the shape of the dimming 
or partial obscuration of spots and markings on the surface 
of Mars; while others, at no great distance, have simulta- 
neously retained all their usual sharpness and comparative 
precision of outline. 

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There is assuredly no member of the planetary system 
which offers so diversified a series of phenomena to the 
contemplation of the student as the noble one which I 
propose to examine to-night. Exceeding the earth in 
volume between thirteen and fourteen hundred times, and 
reflecting (as has been calculated) some sixty-three out of 
every hundred parts of the sun's light that falls upon him, 
Jupiter exhibits a disc and shines with a lustre which renders 
him a conspicuous object in the smallest telescope. Now 
it might be supposed, from the brightness of the planet, 
that a high magnifying power would be most applicable to 
his examination ; as a matter of fact and practice, however, 
it is found that he will not bear so much amplification with 
advantage as his much duller neighbour Saturn. Moreover, 
all the curious detail of which I am immediately about to 
speak is much better seen when a slight haze overspreads 
the sky and softens the glare of light on Jupiter's disc, 
which, in itself, forms an impediment to the perception of 
very delicate markings. Happily for us, such a haze does 
cover part of the sky on the night which I select for our 
drawing. Wishing to use as much magnifying power as I 
can without impairing definition, I, as a limit, fix on 50 to 
each inch of aperture of our telescope. Arming it, then, 
with a power of 150, I turn it on to the planet, to behold 
the spectacle of which the engraving (p. 66) gives a pretty 
accura.e idea. 


Hosted byLjOOQLe 


The first thing that will probably arrest the attention of 
the young observer is the shape of the planet. Instead of 
presenting a circular disc it wiJl be seen to be very notably 
elliptical ; in other words, flattened at the poles, and bulging 
out at the equator. And next, as the eye gets accustomed 
to the image, a series of belts of different depths of shading 
and even of markedly different colours will be seen, striping 
Jupiter's face in a direction parallel to his equator. Let us 

Fig. 29. — Jupiter. Jan. 24, 1884, gh.. 5m. p.m. Power, 150. 

take those visible when our drawing was made. I will begin 
at the top of the planet, which, as all astronomical telescopes 
invert, is, of course, its south pole. For some little distance 
the tint is pretty uniform— or as an artist would say, 4 flat ; ' 
but then it is seen to consist of a series of stripings ; the 
lighter divisions between them being well marked and easily 
visible as we approach the northern edge of this polar cap- 
ping. Then comes a distinct white streak, bounded on the 
north by the principal belt in Jupiter's disc. Ihis is the 

Hosted byLjOOQLe 



most conspicuous feature on the whole face of the planet. 
It is of a decidedly brownish tint, and its northern edge 
shows a marked tendency to throw out small projections, 
so as to give a kind of 'scalloped 7 effect. With a larger 
instrument the dark matter of this belt is seen to emit pro- 
longations or streamers of a wispy character from these 
projections diagonally across the broad bright equatorial 
interval ; but what I have drawn (p. 66) shows everything 
that it is within the power of a three-inch telescope to reveal. 
The northern and fainter of the two equatorial dark belts is 
in its turn succeeded by yet another white streak ; that by a 
fainter dark one still, while a multiplicity of stripes covers 
the north pole of the planet with a shading which, like the 
south polar capping, looks practically ' flat ' or homogeneous. 
A little attention will show that the east and west ' limbs ' 
(or edges) of the disc are not quite so bright az its central 
parts, and that a slight fading away of the beirs is per- 
ceptible as they approach the limb. The satellite and its 
shadow visible on the left-hand western (or ' preceding ' ) 
limb of the planet will be dealt with by-and-by. It must 
not, however, be supposed that the markings I have de- 
scribed are constant or permanent, like the oceans, seas, 
continents, and islands of our own earth ; or that a map 
of Jupiter constructed from observations now would be of 
much use in, say, 1889. Moreover, confining ourselves to 
a single night's observation, the details on the surface of 
the planet will be seen to undergo a very marked change 
in the course of four or five hours' persistent watching of 
them ; for the simple reason that Jupiter is rotating on his 
axis at a speed so tremendous as to be beyond our power 
of realisation. The notable markings which appear from 
time to time upon his face give obvious indications of 
proper motions or driftings of their own, and this compli- 
cates and renders uncertain the exact determination of the 
period of the planet's rotation. It would, however, seem 
that, he turns on his axis in a period not differing greatly 
from 9L 56m., so that a spot on his equator must travel 


at the rate of over seven miles a second ! A simple plumb- 
line must form an effective transit instrument in such a 
favoured locality ! Well, then, by his mere rotation fresh 
features are brought into view ; but after the lapse of nine 
or ten hours we shall revert to that aspect of the planet 
which it presented when we commenced our watch. These 
changes, therefore, are simply such as arise from viewing in 
succession the markings extending over the whole of Jupiter's 
spheroidal surface— of which, of course, only one half is 
visible at any one given instant. I have now to speak of 
the much more remarkable changes which occur in the 
markings themselves in the course of months or years. As 
a familiar example, I may refer to the wonderful great, oval, 
red spot which appeared on the face of the planet to the 
south, of the southern one of his equatorial belts in the year 
1879, and which persisted in a perfectly visible form up to 
T883 • although it has now entirely vanished in a three-inch 
telescope. In August, 1878, a great circular white spot 
formed a most conspicuous object on the planet's equator, 
and in the succeeding year one enormous dark belt, covering 
Jupiter's equatorial regions, was broken up, or perforated, 
as it were, with similar but more irregularly shaped white 
markings. In 1880, a sinuous continuous white marking 
separated the equatorial belt into two — the red spot at this 
time appearing of a pale scarlet tint. In 1881, the red spot 
persisting, the belts became much narrower, and the 'van- 
dyking ' or ' scalloping ' of the northern edge of a dark one 
south of the equator was even more marked than the similar 
phenomenon in the somewhat corresponding dark streak 
shown in our sketch above. And so I might go on detailing 
a series of most curious changes which have occurred during 
the last five-and-twenty years, but for the fact that my 
object is the practical one of teaching the student exactly 
what to look for, rather than merely the giving a list of 
other people's observations. With one concluding remark, 
then, on the phenomena of Jupiter's disc proper, I will 
pass to the consideration of those of his satellites. It is 

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this. Jupiter is much too far off to exhibit phases ; but he 
does show an indication of doing so when what is technically 
called in quadrature, or when he is 90 0 east or west of the 
sun, as measured along the ecliptic. Under these circum- 
stances the limb farthest from the sun exhibits a perceptible 
shading, much too deep to be confused with the slight 
fading away of light all round the limb which is always 

Beautiful and remarkable as are the unstable details 
which diversify Jupiter's face, they are, in one sense, almost 
monotonous as compared with the perpetually changing 
phenomena of the four moons which circle round him. Of 
these satellites the first, second, and fourth appear as stars 
of the seventh magnitude, and the third as a sixth magni- 
tude star. When a satellite crosses Jupiter's face, it is said 
to ' transit ' him ; its entry on to his disc being called its 
ingress, and the instant of its leaving his opposite limb its 
egress. When it passes actually behind the planet it is said 
to be ' occulted ; ' and when it plunges into his shadow, to 
be ' eclipsed.' I am unwilling to introduce anything into 
this volume not strictly within the scope embraced by its 
title ; but in order to render what I am about to describe 
intelligible, it will be necessary to enter into certain elemen- 
tary explanations of the conditions under which we view 
Jovian phenomena from our terrestrial standpoint. Leaving, 
then, our telescope for a few minutes, let S in our figure be 
the sun, Eb, Eo, Ea, the earth travelling round him in the 
direction of the curved arrow ; J, Jupiter, also going round 
the sun in the same direction, but so much more slowly that 
— for our present purpose — we may regard him as standing 
still. Then, evidently, Jupiter will cast the conical shadow 
JUJ' out behind him into space. Let us call D, R, S 17, 
ST'd*, the orbit of one of his outer satellites, and conceive 
it to coincide with the plane of the ecliptic. From Eb draw 
the lines E^J, E^J' meeting the path of the satellite at I 
and E\ Now, imagine the earth at Eb, i.e., before Jupiter 
comes into opposition (say about the end ot November 


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1883). Then, when a satellite is at the point I in its orbit 
on the line E^J', it is seen to enter on to Jupiter's eastern 
limb, and, when it arrives at E', to leave his western limb. 
This, then, is a transit of the satellite. A glance at the 
figure will show that (independently altogether of the earth's 
position) when this same satellite passes between the points 
ST/ and ST^ its shadow must be projected on to Jupiter s 
face, just as the shadow of our own moon is projected on 
the earth in an eclipse of the sun, and it is seen to cross the 
planet as a round black spot. Furthermore, when the 
satellite plunges into the planet's shadow at D, it disappears 
in eclipse, to reappear (under the conditionswe are suppose- 
mg) at R. It will, however, be noted that this reappearance 
from eclipse is only to be followed by occupation behind 
the body of Jupiter when the satellite reaches O, the satellite 
finally reappearing at Jupiter's opposite limb when it reaches 
O'. What I have said, be it remarked, applies only in its 
entirety to the two outer satellites. The inner ones, which 
describe smaller circles round the planet, disappear in 
eclipse, to reappear from occitltation, as they emerge from 
the actual shadow behind the body of the planet. It will 
be further remarked that while the shadow of the satellite 
enters on to Jupiter's face when the satellite reaches the 
point ST/, the satellite itself does not follow it on to the 
limb of the planet, to a terrestrial observer, until it arrives 
at the point I in its orbit. Thus, to sum up, before opposi- 
tion the shadows precede the satellite casting them in their 
transits ; the inner satellites suffer eclipse and reappear 
from occupation, and the outer satellites may both disap- 
pear and reappear from eclipse on the western side of the 
planet, to be subsequently occulted by it. When Jupiter is 
actually in opposition (Eo in our figure), evidently the satel- 
lites will be actually superposed on their shadows as they 
cross the disc of the planet; and, as the whole of the shadow 
cone is hidden behind him, occultations only, and no eclipses, 
can take place. After opposition (a condition of things 
represented at Ea above), the sequence of phenomena is 


obviously reversed : the satellites precede their shadows over 
Jupiter's face ; the inner satellites are occulted by the planet 
and reappear from eclipse ; and the outer satellites may 
disappear in, and reappear from, occultation to be subse- 
quently eclipsed. The student will now be prepared to 
understand that when our sketch of Jupiter was made cn 
the night of Jan. 24, 1884, the planet having passed oppo- 
sition a few days previously, Satellite I., which was about to 
leave his disc, after crossing it in transit, was slightly in 
advance of its shadow. In fact, the shadow did not leave 

Fig. 31.— Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites (Dec. 1883). 

Fig. 39.— Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites (Feb. 1884). 

his limb for seven minutes after the satellite had quitted it. 
Near quadrature an outer satellite may have left the planet's 
face for an hour or two before its shadow even enters on to 
it ! The annexed two small diagrams represent, approxi- 
mately to scale, the points of disappearance in and reappear- 
ance from eclipse of the four satellites as seen in an invert- 
ing telescope during the months of December 1883 and 
February 1884. After what I have said, they ought to be 
perfectly intelligible. 

It only remains, in conclusion, to refer to certain curious 

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phenomena, for which the observer should always be on the 
alert. In the case of occultations, to begin with, the satel- 
lites have been seen apparently projected on the planet's 
disc ; although it seems probable that they were rather seen 
through Jupiter's limb. A star occulted by Jupiter has been 
seen, in a very large telescope, to fade away in a manner 
which affords strong confirmation of this idea. When a 
satellite begins its transit, it may be traced fairly on to the 
planet as a brilliant spot ; but it generally disappears after 
getting some distance within the limb, its reappearance 
happening as it is about to pass off on the other side of the 
planet. I have said that a satellite "' genei a ly ' disappears 
when well within the planet's limb ; but very remarkable 
exceptions indeed to this rule have been witnessed. 

I have myself seen Satellite III. quite as dark in appear- 
ance as its own shadow when transiting Jupiter, and the 
same effect has been noticed with IV., and even, more 
rarely, with II. Again, the shadows, although normally like 
ink- spots, have been seen of curiously diversified colours. 
Those of Satellites 1. and II. have been noted as grey. I 
saw the shadow of II. a chocolate-brown in October 1880, 
and attempted to account for this phenomenon by the sup- 
position that the sun's light must have been shut off from 
a part of Jupiter's surface glowing with a dull red heat. 
But as I remarked in connection with the phenomena of 
the belts, my object here is not to give a mere list of prior 
observations, but rather to direct the beginner in his own. 
Under any circumstances I would fain hope that I have 
said enough to stimulate him to pursue the study of so 
interesting a system as that of which I am treating, and to 
impress him with something of the charm and pleasure of 
the investigation of the leading characteristics of the Jovian 
system, even in so small an instrument as that whose use I 
am presupposing. 





Coming as Saturn did into opposition to the sun during the 
early morning of November 29, 1883, with his rings nearly 
at their greatest opening, and southing in this country at an 
altitude of between 50 0 and 6o°, the planet could hardly be 
in a more favourable position for the observer than he was 
when our drawing was made. He was then situated to the 
north and west of Aldebaran ('The Stars in their Seasons/ 

The flattened figure of the planet will at once strike the 
observer's eye. In other words, he will note that instead 
of presenting a circular disc, the outline of Saturn is very 
perceptibly elliptical— or, as it is commonly called, 'oval' — 
the longest diameter of the ellipse being in the direction of 
his equator. Technically, his figure would be described as 

Fig. 33.— Saturn, 1883, Nov. 13, nh. 45m. 
G.M.T. Power, 204. 

Map L), and was in- 
stantly to be identified by 
the leaden hue of his 
light as contrasted with 
the red colour of 'The 
Bull's Eye.' The sub- 
joined sketch . of the 
planet was made at the 
telescope with a power 
of 204 on the night of 
November 13, at nh. 
45m. p.m. 

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an oblate spheroid, which, put into plain English, means 
that instead of the planet being a perfect sphere, he is, as it 
were, turnip-shaped, i.e., flattened at the poles and bulged 
out at the equator. This effect of the rapid rotation of 
Saturn needs no further mention here. The southern part 
of the globe (that which is uppermost in the telescope) will 
be seen to be covered by a perceptible dark shading, which, 
however, terminates with a well-defined edge not far from 
the planet's equator. Below (north) of this is a bright equa- 
torial band. The general yellow tint of the ball is also a 
notable feature. Where the ring crosses Saturn's disc a 
broad line of shading will be observed, and a careful and 
attentive study of this under good definition will show that 
it consists of two parts, a dark, broad line of shading cross- 
ing, as I have said, the face of the planet ; and seemingly 
superposed upon it, and in contact with the inner edge of 
the ring, a very narrow black line. This latter is the real 
shadow of the ring upon the planet. . The broader stripe is 
a part of the strange interior dusky or ' crape ' ring, of which 
I shall speak immediately. If we turn now to the ring 
itself, we shall perceive that it really consists of two concen- 
tric ones, the inner one being very much broader, and not- 
ably brighter than the outer one, or than the dusky capping 
on the southern hemisphere of the planet. A narrow dark 
line will be seen to separate the inner ring from the outer 
one. In telescopes of four inches of aperture and upwards 
this dark division is traceable right round the ring. With a 
three-inch telescope it will, under favourable circumstances, 
be well seen in the ' ansae ' (the eastern and western portions 
of the ring), but will scarcely be fairly discernible entirely 
round, At moments of the best definition the shadow of 
Saturn will be seen, as drawn above, projected on the inner 
ring only, the black line, known from its discoverer as 
'Cassini's Division,' at once bounding it and the planet's 
south pole on the south. The ' crape 5 ring to which refer- 
ence has previously been made is just beyond the power of 
our instrument On nights when atmospheric conditions 


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admit, however, of the use of a high power, faint indications 
of it may be seen in the form of a seeming ill-defined shad- 
ing away of the inner edge of the broad interior "ring, in the 
ansa?. No connection, though, is traceable between this 
and that portion of the dark ring which is seen crossing 
Saturn's disc ; albeit in larger instruments the whole 
elliptical outline is seen to be continuous— save, of course, 
where the planet itself is superposed on it. The rings are 
known to astronomers as A, B, and C ; A being the outer 
ring, separated from B, the broad bright inner one, by 
Cassini's division, and C the innermost crape ring which 
I have just been describing Ring A itself has been seen 
to be further cut into two by a division known as Encke's ; 
but assuredly this has never been effected with a three-inch 

Saturn, as may be learned from every primer of astro- 
nomy, is attended by eight satellites, ot which three are 
wholly invisible save in large and powerful telescopes. I 
find that by hiding Saturn behind a very thick wire in the 
eye-piece, or by any cognate contrivance, the two known as 
Tethys and Dione may sometimes be glimpsed on a dark 
night. That named Rhea was even visible in the bright 
moonlight while the sketch of the planet given on a 
previous page was being made, and I fancied (although it 
may have been only fancy) that Tethys sometimes flickered 
up for a few consecutive seconds at distant intervals. Inas- 
much then as, under sufficiently favourable circumstances, 
the possessor of a first class three-inch telescope may hope to 
perceive four, or barely possibly even five, out of the eight 
satellites by which Saturn is attended, I here give a drawing 
to scale of their orbits, by the aid of which the student may 
recognise them. 

The arrows show the direction of their motion ; in con- 
nection with which it may be noted that, at first sight, this 
motion may seem to be retrograde. It must, however, be 
borne in mind that we are looking at Saturn's south pole, 
and, so to speak, viewing the orbits of his moons from 


underneath. In 1899, when the north pole of the planet 
will be presented to us practically as the south pole is at 
present, the satellites will be seen to be travelling in the 
same direction as those of Jupiter, or as our own moon &c. 
Tethys and Dione must always be difficult objects in a small 
instrument, and require, as I have said, the planet to be 
hidden, and a moonless sky, to be even glimpsed in a 
three-inch telescope. Rhea is a little easier, but will be best 
seen when at its greatest east or west elongation. Titan, 
shining as a small eighth magnitude star, is practically 
always visible. It occasionally transits the disc of Saturn, 
and under these circumstances its shadow has even been 
seen as a tiny black dot, crossing the face of the planet, 
wiih only ?f in. of aperture. The light of Iapetus is (from 
some cause at present imperfectly understood) variable. 
This satellite is very markedly brighter when at its western 

Such are the most salient features of this wonderful 
planet, as seen in a small telescope. I can only express 
a hope that my description of them may set the student 
seriously to work examining them for himself, with the best 
instrumental means he can obtain. The interest which the 
contemplation of so wonderful and beautiful an object must 
perforce excite will, almost of necessity, induce a desire for 
fuller information concerning it. For such information, of 
a practically exhaustive character, no better or more inte- 
resting a work could possibly be found than ' Saturn and 
its System/ by the editor of ' Knowledge/ which has been 
described, with perhaps as little flattery as ever appeared in 
a critique, as 4 one of the most masterly monographs on an 
astronomical subject in the English language.' 




Tn one sense these chapters would be incomplete were no 
reference made in them to the aspect in our instrument of 
the (as far as is at present known) two outermost members 
of our solar system. A three-inch telescope is hardly the 
one which the observer would select for the scrutiny of 
these dim and distant orbs; but, if we are to view them at 
all, we must employ the optical means at our disposal, and 
make the most of what we possess. Uranus will be for some 
years to come in the constellation Virgo. Even with a 
power that will include a fixed star and the planet in the 
same field a very notable difference in their aspect is percep- 
tible ; but we must use all the magnifica- 
tion that our telescope will admit of . to see 
Uranus to the greatest advantage ; and 
under such a power he was absolutely 
isolated in the field of view when the sub- 
joined drawing was made. 

It will be seen that the planet exhibits 
the appearance of a small greyish-blue Fig. 35. — Uranus, 

r . , r , t • • M arch 16. 1884, 

disc, seemingly perfectly uniform m tint, ^h. i 5 m. g.m.t. 
and without markings of any kind. That ower ' 
the disc, however, is planetary and not stellar was evident 
enough with the power we were using, and was rendered 
even more apparent by turning the telescope on to j3 Virginis, 
and comparing the two images. The difference between the 
pale diffused disc of Uranus and the sharp and brilliant one 


of the star with its single diffraction ring (wholly wanting, 
of course, in the former), instantly struck the eye. That, 
however, much more will ever be found out as to the 
physical aspect of the planet is — in the existing state of 
practical optics— doubtful Light itself, travelling at the 
rate of nearly 187,000 miles in a second, takes more than 
2 hours and 28 minutes to pass across the stupendous 
interval which separates us from this remote world when he 
is in opposition to the sun. The student will have read 
that Uranus is attended by four satellites ; but it is quite 
needless to add that they are utterly beyond the power of 
the telescope we are employing. Probably no human eye, 
save one. has ever seen tl ese extremely n inute objects with 
less than about 7 inches of aperture, the solitary observer to 
whom I refer being that excellent and most abnormally keen- 
sighted one, Mr. I. W. Ward, of Belfast, who did actually 
glimpse the two outer satellites with only 4-3 in. of aper- 
ture on many occasions during the early part of the year 
1876 ! The reality of this very marvellous feat was placed 
beyond doubt by the subsequent comparison of Mr. Ward's 
diagrams made at the telescope wirh Mr. Marth's calculated 
ephemerides of the satellites. Uranus, I may add, is just 
visible to the naked eye. Of Neptune little need be said. 
In a three-inch telescope, with a power of 250, he looks 
something like an eighth magnitude star ; but, as in the 
case of Uranus, he exhibits no diffraction rings and is dimmer 
than an ordinary fixed star. It, however, requires a large, 
and powerful telescope to exhibit Neptune with an unmis- 
takably planetary disc, and the observer with an instrument 
of the size of that whose use is presupposed in these pages 
may be contented if he can fairly satisfy himself that it is 
not a star that he is looking at. 

Hosted by 




Probably in no way could our knowledge of the physical 
structure of the planets be more effectually advanced than 
by the comparison of numerous carefully executed and 
accurate sketches of their superficial detail, made at sufficient 
intervals ; and very notably does this apply to the three 
bodies immediately exterior to the earth — Mars, Jupiter, 
and Saturn. It is more especially, then, to facilitate the 
delineation of these particular planets 
that the present chapter is written. I Jl 
do not, however, mean here to enter into 
the question from an artistic point of 
view ; all I propose to do is to instruct 
the student how to draw the outlines 
of the planets with ease and accuracy ; 
as this always forms a stumbling block 
in the way of the beginner. Com- ft 
mencing with Mars, when in opposi- Fi 36 

tion, and sensibly circular, and sup- 
pose him to subtend an angle of some 17'' f . We need only 
take a pair of compasses, and with centre C (Fig. 36) 
and a radius C'A or CD of half an inch, describe a 
circle ACDB — of course 1 in. in diameter — to obtain the 
outline we require. But Mars is sufficiently near to the 
earth to exhibit a sensible phase, and when near 'quad 
rature' with the sun is very perceptibly gibbous — or like 
the moon about a couple of days before or after she is full. 


Suppose, then, that we wanted to draw the outline of Mars 
on May 15, 1884. Turning to p. 468 of the 'Nautical 
Almanac/ we find that only 0-9 of that diameter of the 
planet passing through the sun was illuminated (this is not 
a strictly scientific description, but will be better under- 
stood than ' the versed sine of the illuminated portion of 
the disc'). Let C D be this diameter, and A B one at 
right angles to it. Then C E will be the part in light. First, 

with centre C as before, and radius CD, describe the circle 
ACBD. Measure off one-tenth of CD to E. Join AE, 
B E, and bisect A E in G and B E in H ; from G draw G F 
at right angles to A E, and from H, H F at right angles to 
BE. Finally, from F, where these last two lines intersect, 
and with radius FE or FA, describe the arc AEB. 
Then will AbBC represent the outline of Mars at our 
specified period. 


Fig- 37- 



If now we try to draw Jupiter as we see it in the telescope, 
we perceive at once, from its pronounced elliptical outline, that 
it is impossible to do so, merely by the aid of compasses, at 
all. The equatorial diameter of Jupiter we may suppose to be 
43", so that, adhering to our original scale, we may represent 
this in fig. 37 by eq, which we must make equal to 2*4 in. 
The preface to the 'Nautical Almanac' tells us that Jupiter's 
polar diameter is only '939 of his equatorial one, so that we 
take / a = 2'2$ in. Then from the centre c, where the two 
diameters cut each other (of course, at right angles), we 
take the distance c e or c q in the compasses, and placing 
one leg of the compasses on p or a, move them about until 
the other leg touches the line c q in the points / and /'. 
Into these points, technically called the foci of the ellipse, 
we stick two pins, and round them tie a loop of thread of 
such length that when stretched tight by a pencil, the pencil 
point shall just touch either a, or q. fp f represents 
this thread in our figure, and if it be kept tightly stretched 
as the pencil is carried round, the curve p e a q will be the 
correct elliptical outline of Jupiter to our adopted scale. 

The description of the outline of Saturn and his rings 
only involves a repetition of this process. Its successive 
steps will be understood by the study of fig. 38. 

The diameter of Saturn was 17 -8" on January 14, so 
we revert to our original scale of 1 inch for the equatorial 
diameter of the planet. But he is even more elliptical 
•than Jupiter, his polar axis only measuring "895 of that 
passing through his equator ; so, to begin with, we have 
c q = t inch, and pa — "895 inch. As before, with one 
leg of the compasses on p or a, and with the distance c e 
or c q, we find the foci / and describe the outline of 
the ball of the planet. From p. 468 of the ' Nautical 
Almanac ' we asctrtain that, at the epoch chosen, 1 the outer 
major axis of the outer ring 0 d was 44'62 /; , and its outer 
minor axis id' 19*1 1" ; converting these into linear 
measure by a rule-of three sum, we find 0 d ■=■ 2*5 inches, 
1 January, 1884. 

G 2 

Hosted byLjOOQLe 


and id'—VQj inch. In like manner we find that the 
inner major axis of the inner ring o 1 d" was 29-67", and 
its inner minor axis i' d'" 12-71" ; quantities which, as 
before, we turn into i*66 inch and 072 inch respectively. 
Then, in the manner explained two or three times pre- 
viously, we find the foci f 2 ,f 4 > and / 4 ,/ 5 , insert our pins, 
and describe the ellipses to which they respectively pertain ; 
the result being shown in our figure. 1 

Possibly by this time the beginner who has followed me 
so far may feel tempted to exclaim, ' Good gracious ! am 
I to go through all these elaborate reductions of angular 



C of . of , j 


Fig. 38. 

into linear measurements, these findings of foci, sticking 
in of pins, carefully tying loops of thread of a rigidly 
accurate length, and all the rest of it, every time I want to 
make a drawing of Jupiter or Saturn ? ' To which I would 
reply, ' Certainly not/ The outline of Jupiter is, for our 
present purpose, absolutely invariable, while those of Mars, 
and especially those of the Saturnian system, vary so slowly 
that the outline once drawn will be sufficiently accurate for 

1 The relative dimensions of the Saturnian system given in the 
1 Nautical Almanac ' are notably erroneous ; but they are, at present, 
the best available. 

Hosted byLjOOQLe 



many weeks. All, then, that the student has to do is to 
transfer such outline to a sheet of what is called in the 
shops latten-brass, and, cutting it very carefully out, to thus 
make a stencil-plate. This is held firmly down on to the 
paper, and very thick Indian ink rubbed over and round it 
with a stencil-biush or tooth-brush with the hairs cut short, 
the result being a white figure of the planet on a black 
background. If latten-brass cannot be procured card may 
be used, but the brass will be found the more satisfactory of 
the two. Furthermore, for the mere purpose of obtaining 
an outline, a sharp-pointed pencil may be run round the 
edges of the stencil-plate, although the Indian ink will be 
found much more effective. In this way I have myself for 
some years past prepared outlines of the planets for the 
purpose of sketching, with results so successful that I unhesi- 
tatingly recommend it to all who may care to address them- 
selves seriously to the very interesting task of delineating 
the detail visible on the surfaces of our nearest neighbours. 


the fixed stars and nebulae. 

Night One. 

In treating of the fixed stars in this concluding chapter, I 
propose simply to select a moderate number of typical and 
interesting objects for description and illustration, and to 
take them from all parts of the sky visible in Great Britain. 
I am not writing for the possessor of an equatorially mounted 
telescope, furnished with graduated circles. To any one 
possessing these means of identifying objects, the stellar 
heavens present an inexhaustible storehouse of objects of 
interest : but I am here addressing the owner of a three-inch 
telescope, mounted on a simple pillar-and-claw stand. I 
shall, then, merely direct the attention of the student to 
certain stars, &c, marked in the maps of * The Stars in 
their Seasons,' in the 'Knowledge' Library Series, with a 
probably rare reference to Proctor's 

• 'Star At'as.' Now let us open Map I. 
of 1 The Stars in their Seasons,' and to- 
wards the lower right-hand corner we 
shall find a star in Cetus, marked y. 
If we are employing the little device 
illustrated in fig. i (p. 3), we must take 
care that the bar B m is as duly north 
„ . and south as we can place it, and this 

Fig. 39.-7 Cetu # 1 ' 

adjustment beinp: made, we put on 
our lowest power eye-piece, and find y Ceti in the sky. 
Having got it into the middle of the field, we exchange 

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the low power for one of 160, and examine our object. 
At the first glance, probably, the student will see nothing 
but a yellowish star of considerable brightness : but, by 
careful attention, he will not be long ere he catches its 
small companion, seemingly to the left of, and just below 
a horizontal line passing through the larger star. Its blue 
or dusky tint will at once strike the observer, as well as its 
small size compared with that of its primary. This elegant 
pair form what is known to astronomers as ' a binary 
system ; ' in other words, the stars are physically connected, 
and the smaller star revolves round the larger one — or both 
round their common centre of gravity — in a very long period, 
the exact duration of which is, as yet, undetermined. There 
are other objects of interest in Cetus, but the difficulty of 
identifying them compels me to omit reference to them. 
Among them, 66 Ceti may be mentioned as a charming 
pair. It may be found — with numerous other doubles — on 
Map III. of Proctor's 'Star Atlas.' 

Above, and to the right of that { -art of Cetus in which y 
is situated, will be seen a curved line of three stars, the chief 
ones in Aries ; the bottom, and least, of which is remarkable 
as being the one of which Hooke wrote in 1664, ' I took 
notice that it consisted of two small stars very near together ; 
a like instance to which I have not 
else met with in all the heavens.' It is 
almost needless to tell even the be- 
ginner that double stars are now num- 
bered by thousands. Viewed with a 
power of 160, y Arietis presents the 
appearance shown in fig. 40. The 
components of this asterism will be 
observed to be pretty nearly equal 
in size. The (apparently) lower and 
smaller star of the two will be seen to be of a greyish hue. 
If now the observer will follow an imaginary line from y 
through ft on the map, it will strike upon a star, not 
lettered there, t^ut fairly well seen with the naked eye to the 


right of a. This is X, a wide but pretty double. Here again 
the smaller star is more distinctly coloured than the larger 
one. Forming the apex of a right-angled triangle with a 
and X Arietis (whereof a is at the right angle) is a wide triple 
star, 14 Arietis. Sweeping where Aries and Triangula are 
conterminous, several pairs of small stars will pass across 
the field of view. Some 2 0 (four times the diameter of the 
sun or moon) above and to the right of ft Arietis (as seen 
by the naked eye) will be found a beautiful close double 
star, which will most severely tax the power of the incipient 
observer to see it fairly separated. It is 179 of Hour I. in 
Piazzi's great catalogue. The yellowish tinge of the larger 
component, contrasting with the blue of the smaller one, 
renders this a very pretty object. And now the observer 
may raise his telescope higher still, to that lovely object y 

. s Andromedse (above Triangula in the map). The contrast 
/ between the yellow of the large star and the exquisite green 
of its small companion is very striking. 7r Andromedse, to 
the right of (3, is a very pretty pair, the contrasting colours 

^ being, in this case, very pale yellow and blue ; 59, 2 3, P. 
XXIII. 240, and other beautiful pairs, will be found marked 
in Proctor's 'Atlas.' 

Exchanging now his high power for the lowest one 
supplied with his telescope, the beginner should fish a little 
above and to the right of v Andromedse for that most 
remarkable object, 31 of Messier's catalogue ; the well- 
known great nebula in Andromeda. Sir John Herschel 
quotes Simon Marius as describing the appearance of this 
nebula as resembling that of a candle shining through 
horn, and this really does not give a bad idea of it as viewed 
in such an instrument as that which we are using. Readers 
of current scientific literature will remember how a new 
star shone up in the very midst, and close to the nucleus 
of this nebula, in August 1885, and which faded to invisi- 
bility early during the present year (1886). 

None of the larger stars in Taurus present any features 
of interest in small telescopes, x Tauri is a somewhat wide, 

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but pretty pair. In the Map I. of ' The Stars in their 
Seasons,' which we are supposed to be using, a trapezium of 
small stars will be noted above the words Aldebaran and 
taurus. x is at the left-hand top corner of this trapezium. 
Identification of the smaller ones without graduated circles 
is almost hopeless ; using a low-power eye-piece, though, the 
Pleiades present a fine spectacle, and about two diameters 
of the moon above and to the right of £Tauri will be found a 
pale elongated nebute. A low eye-piece too must be used for 
this. Nearly overhead (in December and January), Perseus 
will be observed — a constellation rich in objects of interest, of 
which, however, I can only give an account of a very few suit- 
able for the instrument whose employment is presupposed, 
e is a very fine pair, but the smaller 
star requires some little looking for. 
It is below and just to the right of its 
primary. It is delineated in fig; 41. 

£ Persei is really a quadruple star, 
but the student will scarcely discern 
more than three out of its four com- 
ponents with the aperture I am con- 
sidering. 77 is another pretty pair, too, 
but somewhat difficult from the faint- 
ness of its companion. Perseus contains several interesting 
clusters — notably one of the most glorious fields of stars in 
the whole heavens, in what is called the 'Sword-handle.' This 
may be seen by a sharp-sighted person with the naked eye, 
between Perseus and Cassiopeia, as a bright spot in the Milky 
Way. This superb object requires the lowest eye-piece in 
the observer's possession, to do it the smallest justice. No 
view of it, 'however, - with so small an aperture, will give any 
idea of the gorgeous effect it presents in a large instrument. 

South of Aries and the Pleiades ■ lies the straggling con- 
stellation Eridanus. It contains numerous interesting pairs 
of stars, which, in the absence of Proctor's 'Atlas,' must be 
swept for. It would only tend to confusion to attempt to 
localise them on a map in which they are not lettered nor 


numbered. 32, 39, 55, and P. III. 98, will all be found to be 
beautiful and attractive objects, and are marked in Proctor. 
A curious planetary nebula, y IV. 26, seen best with a 
tolerably low power, will be found there too. 

Night Two. 

By this time the student will have become tolerably 
familiar with his instrument. I propose to employ it to- 
night in the examination of some of the more striking 
objects in the glorious constellation of Orion. And first we 
will turn it upon /3 Orionis or Rigel, fig. 42, which will 
furnish the young astronomer with good, if easy, preliminary 
practice in the detection of small stars in the neighbourhood 
of larger and more brilliant ones. Probably, at first, his eye 
will be dazzled with the brilliant blue coruscations surround- 
ing Rigel itself; but a little careful attention will show just 
above and to the left of it a small bluish point, as shown in 
the figure. From Orion's foot he may proceed to his 
face, in which we shall find A, a very pretty pair, tolerably 
close together, the larger star being yellowish, the smaller 


Fig. 42.— Rigel. Fig. 43.— A Orionis. 

one more of a lilac hue. Fig. 43 represents it as seen 
with a power of 120. The lowest, or most easterly of the 
three stars in the Giant's belt, £, will next claim our attention, 
and to show this properly will be a pretty severe test of the 
excellence of the observer's instrument. As shown in the 
drawing below, this star is triple ; the principal and second . 


stars, with a power of 150, being almost in contact, and the 
third below and to the right of them. Some considerable 
gazing will be required on the part of the beginner before 
he succeeds in making out the duplicity of the principal 
pair in this asterism. The engraving may help him to 
understand exactly what to look lor. 

Fig. 44.— £ Orionis. Fig. 45. — a Orionis. 

We now turn to a, which will be seen beneath f in the 
map. This is a triple, or, perhaps more correctly, a septuple 
star, all the components shown in fig. 45 being well within 
the same field with a power of 120. 

The object marked 6 in the map is one of the most won- 
derful in the whole heavens, 
consisting, as it does, of a 
mass of nebulous matter (now 
known to be glowing gas !) 
surrounding, and seemingly 
physically connected with, a 
curious group of stars. 

No woodcut can possibly 
do justice to this most mar- 
vellous object : but in my 
sketch, copied above, I have 

endeavoured to give some Fig . 46 ._, (and 42M . Nebula) ononis, 
faint idea of its aspect as 

viewed with a power of 80. The black gap leading up to the 
trapezium of four stars is known as ' the fish's mouth.' 


The nebulosity surrounding an isolated star, towards the 
bottom of the field, will be noted. The difference in 
colour of the stars forming the trapezium will be readily 
detected. There are a fifth and a sixth belonging to this 
group ; but they are entirely beyond the power of such an 
instrument as that which we are using. 

Having gazed our fill on this wonderful sight, and, 
furthermore, particularly scrutinised the trapezium of stars 
with the highest power at our disposal, we will lower the 
telescope a little to i Ononis, a very pretty triple, in a fine 

Its aspect, as seen with a power of 120, is shown in 
fig. 47. The smallest of the three stars will require 
careful looking for before the unpractised observer will see 
it at all. 

Fig. 47. — 1 Ononis. Fig. 48.— p' Ononis. Fig. 49.-52 Ononis. 

An even more difficult star is p l Ononis, represented in 
fig. 48. This will require a power of 150 at least, and, in 
fact, as high a one as the observer possesses, to see the 
companion fairly. The small star is so faint and difficult 
with a three-inch aperture as to form a very fair light-test 
indeed, p 1 may be found by carrying an imaginary line 
through the three stars £ e, and 8, in the belt, on which 
line, at double the length of the belt from S, it will be 

The last illustration I shall give is of 52 Orionis, a severe 
test of the separating power of such an instrument as I am 
considering. At moments of the finest vision, with the 

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highest power at the observer's disposal, it will be seen as 
in fig. 49. 

Such are a few typical stars among a very mine of such 
objects in which the student may well search by sweeping 
for himself. Should he succeed in exhausting such a 
treasury in one night's work, he may turn his telescope 
down to Lepus, where, inter alia, he will find a pretty, and 
somewhat difficult pair in k. This is the star to the right of 
X, and just beneath 1, in Map I. of 'The Stars in their 

Night Three. 

In speaking of Taurus on p. 89, I omitted one object in 
the absence of means for its identification. It was 118 
Tauri, which is a beautiful small pair ; it lies below ft on 
the map. In noticing the nebula to the north-west of £ 
Tauri, I omitted, too, to add that £ itself is situated in a rather 
pretty and curious field. 

Above Taurus lies the constellation Auriga, to the 
examination of which we proceed to devote ourselves. I 
will begin with 14, a star just above a line joining ft Tauri 
and t Aurigae in the map, and about halfway between them 
there. Really triple, we shall only be able to see it as a double 
star, the components being of a yellowish tint, and about 
half as far again apart as those of 7 Arietis. A very pretty 
pair will be found in 00 Aurigse. This does not appear by 
name on the map, but is about halfway between rj and 1, 
It is represented in fig. 50. 

Fig. 50.— a) Aurigae Fig. 51.— 6 Aurigae. 

0 Aurigae, as a close and very unequal pair, will tax both 
the instrument and the eyesight of the observer to the 

Hosted byLjOOQLe 


uttermost to see it properly. When best seen it will appear 
as in fig. 51. 

5 Aurigas (to the south of £) is another star in which 
the diversity of size of the components and their proximity 
render its observation decidedly difficult. The student will 
see both these objects better with a high power than with a 
lower one. 26 (N.E. of f3 Tauri in the map) is a pretty 
star, from the contrasted colours of its components, and is 
very easy from their distance. The companion is almost 
horizontally to the left of the larger star. 2 872 is an 
equally easy pair. It will be found just to the left of the 
solstitial colure in the map. 225 P. v. Aurlgse, to the N.E. 
of 26, must be found by fishing, as it is invisible to the 
naked eye. When in the field of the telescope, however, 
it will be found to be a close and extremely pretty little 

We may now take a glance at two or three of the most 
striking clusters of stars in the constellation under review. 
And first, M. 38 (north of <f> Aurigse) forms a beautiful field, 
the main cluster assuming a cruciform aspect. The telescope 
may be moved about in this neighbourhood, which is a rich 
one. M. 36 (nearly due E. of <£) is also very fine. M. 37 
(N. of the double star 225, previously described) is a glorious 
field, even with such an instrument as that which we are 
employing. In regarding a nebula or cluster, no light should 
be suffered to enter the eye for some little time before it is 
applied to the telescope ; and the observer should gaze 
steadily at such an object until the eye becomes accustomed 
to it, after which hitherto imperceptible detail will flash up. 
Another rich field will be found in $ VII. 33 (N.E. of /x, in 
the map). 

Our next object to-night shall be that beautiful and 
familiar double star a Geminorum, or Castor (Map II. of 
'The Stars in their Seasons '). This, with the instrument we 
are employing, we shall find to be a perfectly easy object ; 
in fact, were the young observer furnished with the means 
of accurately directing his telescope, Castor might be seen 

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double in bright twilight — or even in broad daylight. Its 
telescopic aspect, with a power of 120, is shown in rig. 52. 

8 Geminorum is another star which will repay examina- 
tion. It will be found in Map II. The small purplish 
companion will be seen above the principal star, and just to 
the left of the hour circle passing through it k (below 
Pollux in the same map) is a difficult: and delicate pair, 
requiring a first-class instrument and acute vision to see the 
comes at all 38 in this constellation, though difficult, is a 
decidedly easier object than k. In both these stars the 
contrasted colours of the companions are very fine. Many 
other objects will be found, but, being invisible to the naked 
eye, they are by no means easy to pick up without an 
equatorial mounting. 

Fig. 52.-- Castor. Fig. 53.-66 Cancri. 

Cancer is not a constellation containing many objects of 
interest within the power of a three-inch telescope. Never- 
theless the student will see £ as a double star (it is really 
triple). <£ 2 is another object, approximately as easy to see 
as £ 66 Cancri is decidedly more difficult ; for, although 
the components are about the same distance apart as those 
of <£ 2 , their considerable inequality makes the comes look 
small by contrast. Fig. 53 exhibits it as seen when best 
defined with a power of 160. 

1 Cancri is chiefly interesting from the contrasted colours 
of its components. They are, relatively, very wide apart. 
Should the observer possess a day eye-piece, he may put it 
on to scrutinise the Praesepe with. At all events,. he must 
use the lowest power he has. The same eye- piece may be 

Hosted byLjOOQLe 


retained to look at another cluster, 67 Messier, somewhat 
to the west, or right, of a in the sky. 

And now we arrive at a star which, while scarcely 
affording a crucial test, yet requires a \ery good eye and 
instrument to see it well and cleanly separated. I refer 
to the familiar one, y Leonis (Map III. ' The Stars in their 
Seasons'), which, with a power of 160, should present the 
appearance indicated in fig. 54. 

A more difficult object, and one which will severely tax 
the powers, both optical and visual, of the observer, is 

• 1 Leonis (Map III.). 54 Leonis is a 
charming object. There are a very great 
many small pairs in Leo ; but the remarks 
which I have made above in connection 
with telescopic stars in Gemini are equally 
applicable here. If the student will fish 
about the apex of an equilateral triangle, 
i=>- 54-— 7 eonis. wnereo f a and y Leonis form the., extremi- 
ties of the base (to the left, >v east, of the line joining them), 
with the lowest power at his disposal, he will find himself in 
a region rich in nebulae. 

Underneath Leo in the maps will be found the foolish 
modern constellation of the Sextant. 35 Sextantis (about 5 0 
S.E. of p Leonis) is worth looking at, as a curious disagree- 
ment exists as to the colour of the comes. There is a bright 
nebula, too, worth examination, in Sextans. It is 163 of 
Sir William Herschel's first catalogue. 

Hydra, straggling across the sky beneath Cancer, Sex- 
tans, Crater, Corvus, Virgo, and Libra, contains a consider- 
able number of interesting objects, though but few of them 
are susceptible of easy recognition. e'Hydrae is a fine pair, 
but difficult with such an instrument as we are employing, 
on account of the proximity of its components, and of their 
disparity in size. Of the objects in Crater and Corvus 
(two figures perched by the map-makers on Hydra's back), 
I need here only allude to 17 Crateris, an easy double star, 
with prettily contrasted colours ; and to 8 Corvi, wider 

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apart still, but exhibiting even more prominent tints in 
its components. About three quarters of the way upon 
an imaginary line drawn from a to 8 Corvi will be found a 
nebula, 65 of Sir William HerschePs first catalogue. By 
this time the incipient astronomer will probably feel that 
he -has accomplished a fairly good night's work. Our next 
night we will devote to Virgo and the neighbouring region 
of the sky. 

Night Four. 

Before beginning our examination of the constellation 
Virgo to-night, I will return to that of Hydra for the pur- 
pose of looking at a very wonderful object, omitted in the 
description on the preceding page. The student will find 
it by fishing with a power of 100 or so about 2 0 (four dia- 
meters of the moon) to the south of Hydrse (Map III.). 
It is No. 27 of HerschePs fourth catalogue, and is one of 
the most remarkable planetary nebulce in the heavens. Un- 
like nebulae general y, this will bear considerable magnifying 
power. It will be seen as a pale blue disc, looking just 
like the ghost of Jupiter. As Huggins has shown that it is 
gaseous, the sharpness of its outline is very curious. 

Fig. SS- 1 ^ Virginis. Fig. 56.-6 Bootis. Fig. 57-— £ Bootis. 

Turning now to Virgo, I will begin with that most 
interesting star y, which is shown in fig. 55, as seen with a 
power of 160. When first observed by Herschel, in 1790, 

1 The letters S and N in this and subsequent figures indicate the 
South and North parts of the field of view ; while the arrow shows the 
apparent direction of the star's diurnal motion. 



the components of this star were nearly 6" apart, but were 
approaching each other ; and in 1836 were so practically 
superposed as to appear single under the very highest power 
that Admiral Smyth could apply to them upon his 5-9 inch 
achromatic. Since that time they have been separating, 
and their distance at present amounts to about 5'', so that 
they form an easy pair in the instrument we are using. 0 
Virginis (Map. V.) is a very pretty and interesting triple ; the 
third star, which is nine times as far from the large one as 
its more obvious companion, will require a dark night and 
pretty sharp sight to see it well. There are very many 
beautiful and interesting pairs of stars in Virgo ; but as they 
are mostly below the sixth magnitude they are not marked 
in the maps whose employment I am presupposing, and 
no amount of description would enable the reader to identify 
them. Fortunately, simple sweeping, in the marvellous 
region to which I am about to introduce the reader, will 
suffice to enable him to pick up many of the wonderful 
mass of nebulae collected within the area roughly bounded 
by €, S, y, 77, and ft Virginis, and ft Leonis. If the student 
will arm his instrument with a power of about 40, and sweep 
slowly over that part of the sky contained within the curve 
drawn through the stars I have named (Map V.), he cannot 
fail to be astonished and pleased at the wealth of nebulous 
objects, and the pretty fields of stars that he will encounter. 
One of these curious objects is shaped like a boy's kite. A 
few are resolvable into stars in some of the enormous tele- 
scopes now comparatively common. Others are unmistak- 
ably gaseous. 

Above Virgo is situated Coma Berenices, easily recog- 
nisable in the sky by the coarse cluster of stars in its north- 
western portion. If the reader will draw an imaginary line 
from a through 36 on Map V., then at about three times as 
far to the right of 36 as 36 is to the right of a, and a little 
above such line, will be found 24 Comae, a wide double star, 
but interesting from the beautiful contrast of orange and 
pale purple presented by its components. Just above, and 

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to the left of a Comas (Map V.), what will appear like a 
nebula will be found. It is 53 of Messier's catalogue, and 
is reaUy an immense mass of tiny stars ; but it requires a 
much more powerful instrument than ours to show this. 
Other nebulas, mostly faint, will be found among the cluster 
of stars to which I have previously referred. 

Adjoining Coma Berenices above lies Canes Venatici, of 
which the chief star, a, 12, or Cor Caroli — for it has all 
three designations— is a widish double. About one-third 
of the way between Cor Caroli and 8 Leonis 2 Canum will 
be found— a close pair, with prettily contrasted colours. 
There are numerous other pairs in this constellation, but, 
for the so often reiterated reason, I can give no intelligible 
directions for finding them. In the case of more than one 
of the remarkable nebulas, however, contained in it, I trust 
to be more successful in pointing out their whereabouts. 
3 0 (6 diameters of the moon) to the south-west of 77 Ursas 
Majoris, the star at the end of the Great Bear's tail, will be 
found two rather dim nebulas, nearly touching each other. 
This is Messier 51, the astonishing Spiral nebula, which, as 
seen in Lord Rosse's great telescope, has been pictured in 
so many works on astronomy. About midway between 
Arcturus and Cor Caroli, but rather nearer the former (Map 

V. ), will be found a bright nebula, Messier 3, which large 
telescopes resolve into a brilliant condensed cluster of 
minute stars. Some 2\° to the north-west of Cor Caroli is 
a nebula, 94 Messier, which, though small, is sufficiently 
conspicuous in the class of instrument we are using. Other 
nebulas in this constellation may be picked up by fishing, 
especially in the region between a Canum Venaticorum and 
£ Ursas Majoris. 

The constellation Bootes, at which we now arrive (Map 

VI. of ' The Stars in their Seasons 7 ), will be found a very 
mine of objects of interest by the incipient observer. We 
will begin by turning our instrument, armed with a power of 
160, upon e, a star which Struve well described as ' pulcher- 
nnia ' (or most beautiful). So viewed it will be seen as in 



fig. 56, the larger star being yellow, and the companion a 
bluish-green, tt Bootis, an interesting and easy pair, when 
viewed with a power of 160 will be found to present the 
appearance shown in fig. 58. f Bootis is a little closer 
and somewhat more unequal pair, the colours of the com- 
ponents, moreover, being more strongly contrasted than in 
the case of the previous star. It is shown in fig. 57. 1 is 
a wide and easy pair, which it is needless to figure. 44 
Bootis, shown in fig. 59, as seen with a power of 160, is 
interesting from the contrasted colours of its components. 
It is not numbered in the map, but is one of two small 
stars forming a triangle with /5 and 0 Bootis in it. Nor is 

Fig. 58.— tt Bootis. Fig. 59-— 44 Bootis. Fig. 60.— 39 Bootis. 

our next object, 39 Bootis, numbered ; but it is the north- 
western of the pair of stars in the map, and will be found 
in the sky, a little above, and to the right of 44. In this, 
again, the colours are prettily contrasted. Its aspect as 
viewed with the same power as the preceding objects is 
represented in fig. 60. k Bootis, on' the confines of Canes 
Venatici, is a wider, and much more unequal pair. It is 
shown in fig. 61. On a line drawn from Spica Virginis to 
£ Bootis, and about n° south (and a little east) of Arcturus, 
will be found the very pretty and interesting double star 
which I have drawn in fig. 62. It is 69 of the fourteenth 
hour of Piazzi's catalogue. The difference in colour of the 
components of this pair will at once strike the observer. He 

Hosted by 


will, though, probably be puzzled to say exactly what the 
colour of the smaller star is, very discrepant conclusions on 
this subject having been arrived at. Some 8^° to the west, 
and just to the north of Arcturus, we shall rind a very beau- 
tiful object, the star i Bootis, shown in fig. 63. At the 
first glance the student will observe two stars, nearly of 
the same magnitude, and wide apart. It is the upper, 
or southern one of them, to which our attention must be 
directed. Looking at it carefully, we shall note the minute 
blue star shown in fig. 63, to the south, and very slightly 
to the east of its primary. I have omitted the second 
large star of which I have just spoken from the diagram, 

Fig. 61. k Bootis. 

Fig. 62. — P. xiv. 69. 

Fig. 63. — 1 Bootis. 

inasmuch as, using the scale to which it is drawn, such star 
would be just out of the northern, or lower, portion of the 
field. Finally, the student may, if he likes, look at £ Bootis 
with the very highest power at his command ; but, 'under 
the most favourable circumstances, he will only succeed in 
so far converting it into a slightly egg-shaped object as to 
show that it is not single. Such are a few of the most easily 
identifiable objects in this constellation. The number of 
purely telescopic double stars is very large indeed ; but 
their necessary absence from our map of reference, and the 
impossibility of recognising them without an equatorial pro- 
vided with graduated circles, renders the mere mention of 
them here sufficient. 

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Night Five. 

To the east of Bootes lie the ' constellations Corona 
Borealis and Serpens, which we will to-night proceed to 
examine. Beginning with the former (which really does 
present more than the ordinary resemblance to the object 
whose name it bears), we shall find a-very interesting double 
star in £ (Map VI. of ' The Stars in their Seasons ' ), the 
components exhibiting well-contrasted colours. Its aspect, 
as seen with a power of 160, is shown in fig. 64. o- Coronae 
is a very pretty pair. It is delineated in fig. 65, as viewed 
with the same power as the last star, o- will be found in 
the sky, as nearly as may be, io° N.E. of a Coronae. This 
is sometimes ranked as a triple star, as the pair shown in 
the subjoined sketch are followed, at a distance of 51" or 
52", by a minute blue star, o- itself is one of what are 
known as binary stars, i.e. physically connected pairs ; and, 
in the description of their orbits about their common centre 
of gravity, its components have separated from i //# 3 in 1830, 
to something like' 3" '5 now. 

. Fig. 64. Fig. 65.— a Curonse Bor. Fig. 66.-6 Serpentis. 

£ Corona; Borealis. 

One of the most interesting of these binary systems, that 
of rj Coronae, is, unfortunately, quite hopelessly beyond the 
power of our instrument, as the two stars are now less than 
o"''7 apart. Their distance varies from about i"'4 to o //% 3, 
and their orbit is described in something over forty years. 
There are several pairs of telescopic stars in this constella^ 
tion, all of them tolerably easy to divide, but it is very 

Hosted by 


difficult to give directions for finding them, in the absence 
of an equatorially mounted telescope with divided circles. 
Ah easy one (Struve 1964) will be found a little to the 
south-west of £, described above. While going over Corona 
the student should not omit to glance at that most aston- 
ishing object, T Coronas, the star which blazed up suddenly 
as a second magnitude one in the year 1866. Examined 
by our greatest English spectroscopist, Dr. Huggins, on 
May 16 in that year, it was found to exhibit a double spec- 
trum ; one analogous to that shown by our own sun, the 
other one that of glowing gaseous hydrogen, thus (possibly) 
indicating a conflagration on a stupendous scale. Subse- 
quently to this the star faded to the 9th magnitude, revived 
again somewhat, and has since been irregularly variable. 
At present it appears as a star of about the 9^th magnitude, 
It is situated on an imaginary line drawn from e Coronae to 
7r Serpentis, at rather, less than one-third of the distance 
between the two from <r. 

Serpens, to which we shall next devote our attention 
('The Stars in their Seasons,' Map VII.), is one of those 
straggling and sprawling constellations so difficult to follow 
in the sky. Nevertheless, it is one containing many beau- 
tiful and interesting objects. To begin with, a is a very wide 
and unequal pair, the smaller component requiring a good 
dear of looking for with a small telescope. I mention it 
here for the pretty contrast in colours which it presents. 
8 Serpentis, shown in fig. 66, is a very neat and pretty 
binary star ; the components are at present separating. /3 is, 
like a, a widish and very unequal pair, the small star, as in 
the former case, being bluish. 0 Serpentis is comparatively 
wide and easy. It will well repay examination, though, 
"from the richness of the region in which it lies, y Serpentis, 
4° north-east of 77, is also wide and easy. As before, I 
mention it for the pleasingly contrasted colours of its com- 
ponents. 5 Serpentis, 9 0 south-west of a, is much closer, 
and very unequal ; it will repay examination. io|° to the 
north-east of a Serpentis, on a line drawn from that star to 


Vega, will be found 49 Serpentis — a fine pair shown in fig 
67. This is a binary system, with a supposed period of 900 
years ! 59 (or d) Serpentis is a beautiful object, the colours 
of its close and unequal components being strongly con- 
trasted. It is represented in fig. 68. Smyth's directions 
for finding this star are, perhaps, as good as any. 'To 
identify 59 Serpentis,' he says, 4 let an east-south-east ray 
be shot from f3 Herculis through a, which will be found 
two-fifths of the way ' (i.e. from f$ Herculis to 59 Serpentis). 

Fig. 67. — 49 Serpentis. Fig. 68. — 59 Serpentis. Fig. 69. — 13 M. Herculis. 

Libra ('The Stars in their Seasons/ Map VI.), is neither 
a striking constellation to the naked eye, nor does it con- 
tain many objects accessible to the class of instrument we 
are employing. A small but easy pair of stars will be found 
in No. 62 of Piazzi's fourteenth hour. It lies 1 5 0 east by north 
of Spica Virginis, or 2\° south-west of t in the same constel- 
lation. 9 0 due west of f3 Scorpii will be found P. xv. 91, a 
not very close but considerably unequal pair. 1 Librae is a 
very wide and unequal pair, but worth looking at for its pret- 
tily contrasted colours. Just to the north-west of 5 Serpentis, 
of which I have previously spoken, will be found that fine 
compressed cluster of very small stars, No. 5 of Messier's 
catalogue. It is scarcely resolvable in a three-inch achro- 
matic, and merely appears like a nebula, brightening conspi- 
cuously towards the centre. 

We now arrive at that somewhat unintelligible constella- 
tion, Hercules, who appears head downwards in the maps 
and globes, between the constellations of the Northern 
Crown and the Lyre (' The Stars in their Seasons,' Map VII.). 


As my present object, however, is less to reconcile the configu- 
ration of the stars composing this constellation with the 
counterfeit presentment of an inverted hero, than to select 
from them curious and beautiful objects, suitable to the in- 
strument we are employing, the map we use will supply all 
the aid necessary for this purpose. I say all the' aid ; but 
in truth the map which should give the position of a quarter 
of the interesting objects with which this constellation teems, 
would have to be a very elaborate and crowded one indeed. 
I must then, perforce, confine myself to a few of the most 
easily identifiable. Beginning upon the confines of Corona 
Borealis, half-way between y and £ Coronae, we shall find 23 
Herculis. This is a wide pair, but I insert it here for the 
marked colour of the smaller star, which will be seen below 
and just to the right of its primary, f Herculis, a remarkable 
binary star, is quite beyond the power of our telescope— in 
fact, appears single with the means at our disposal. If, though 
we fish along a line connecting 77 and £ Herculis, about one- 
third of the way from rj we shall light upon an object which 
will amply repay us for any disappointment we may experi- 
ence in connection with this. The object to which I refer 
is No. 13 of Messier's catalogue, and consists of a most 
glorious globular cluster of stars. How far we shall succeed 
in detecting its stellar character will depend upon the excel ■ 
lence of our instrument, and the acuteness and training of 
our vision. I have tried to indicate its character in fig. 69 
above. north by east of 77 Herculis will be found another 
cluster (Messier 92), which the average eye and instrument 
will only show as a bright nebula. I may further note here 
that there are two planetary nebuke in this constellation ; but 
that only one of these is at all within the reach of a three- 
inch telescope, and neither can be found with certainty save 
in one equatorially mounted. 

Night Six. 

And now we come to the lovely object of which fig. 70 
is nothing but a diagram, a Herculis ; the contrast between 


the pronounced orange hue of the large star and the emerald 
green of the smaller one being perfectly charming. 8 Herculis 
is a somewhat wide and unequal pair. I insert it here on 
account of the extraordinary discrepancies which appear in 
the descriptions of the colour of its companion by various 
observers at different dates. This is a star which the ob- 
server will do well to watch, p Herculis is a close and 
beautiful double, the colour of the companion being very fine- 
It is shown in fig. 71. A Herculis, between 8 and /x (' The 
Stars in their Seasons,' Map VII.), is only a single star, with 
nothing but its deep yellow colour to render it remarkable ; 
it is inserted here, though, since it may interest the student 
to look at, or very near, the point in the heavens towards 

Fig. 70. — a Herculis. Fig. 71. — p Herculis. Fig. 72.-95 Herculis. 

which our entire solar system is moving at the rate of some 
422,000 miles per diem. 

One-third of the way from a Herculis towards Vega (the 
brilliant star in Lyra) will be found a widish pair, 200 of 
Piazzi's seventeenth hour of R..A. It is noticeable for the 
beautifully contrasted colours of its unequal components. If 
we draw an imaginary line from a Ophiuchi to /3 Lyrae 
('The Stars in their Seasons,' Map VIL), and travel io° 
along it, we shall arrive at 95 Herculis, a tolerably close star, 
whose components differ but little in magnitude, although 
they have been alleged to do so notably in colour. Smyth 
calls them ' apple green ' and ' cherry red.' Another ob- 
server describes them as both golden yellow. At present 
they appear to me of a palish yellow, both nearly of the same 
hue. 95 is represented in fig. 72. ^Herculis, a wide and- 

Hosted byLjOOQLe 


very unequal pair, presents, as do so many other stars in this 
constellation, very finely contrasted colours. n° from f$ 
Lyrse, on a line joining this star with a Herculis, lies 100 
Herculis, a pretty, and easy little pair of equal magnitude. 
It is shown in fig. 73. 

Such are a few typical objects among those with which 
this fine constellation abounds. Purely telescopic pairs 
fairly swarm in it, and may be picked up everywhere by 
simply sweeping the sky. At least seven well-determined 
variable stars, to'o, are numbered among its constituents ; 
and, in addition to the two clusters of stars of which I have 
given a short description above, it contains two planetary 
nebulae, and many interesting fields of stars. It will prove 
a very treasure-house to the incipient observer. 

Fig. 73.— 100 Herculis* Fig. 74.— fx. Librae Fig. 75. — A Ophiuchi. 

Libra, situated beneath a part of Serpens (' The Stars 
in their Seasons/ Map VI.), need not detain us long. Its 
two principal stars, a 2 and have very distant comites, but 
can scarcely legitimately be called 'double.' About 5^° 
to the south by east of a the observer will find 212 of 
Piazzi's hour xiv. It is just visible to the naked eye. It 
forms a pretty but very easy pair with a moderate power. It 
is really a triple star, but the third component is hopelessly 
beyond our aperture, /x Librae is an extremely close pair, but 
is said to have been seen by Burnham with a 2^-inch achro- 
matic. Its appearance, as exhibited in an English three-inch 
telescope, is shown in fig. 74. It is not marked in the map 
to which I have just referred, but will be found a little more 
than 2 0 to the north and west of a. About 6° west-south- 


west of /x Serpentis will be found Struve 1962 Librae a 
pretty and delicate, but not difficult object. The remaining 
double stars (of which there are a good many) in this con- 
stellation are all invisible to the naked eye. Before quitting 
it we must look at that beautiful object, 5 of Messier's cata- 
logue — a fine cluster of stars crowded into a nebulous-look- 
ing object. This lies nearly 9 0 to the south-west of a Serpen- 
tis, and forms a rudely equilateral triangle with that star and 
fji in the same collection. 

Below Herculis, and straggling in and out of Serpens, 
Libra, Scorpio, and Sagittarius, we find Ophiuchus, or the 
Serpent-bearer. The Serpent borne by this gentleman I have 
already described in pp. 103 and 104. I now turn to its carrier 
himself. Unlike Hercules, the major part of Ophiuchus 
appears meagre and barren to the naked eye. It, however, 
resembles that constellation in being replete with objects of 
telescopic interest. Beginning with p l — which is, by the way, 
terribly low down — we find a beautiful close pair of stars, with 
a pretty contrast between the pale yellow of the larger one 
and the blue of its companion ; the pair forming the apex 
of a triangle with two other companion stars. X will tax 
the observer's powers and those of his instrument to the very 
utmost. This is a binary star with a period of 234 years ; 
its components are very slightly opening just now. Fig. 75 
gives some idea of it as seen as a merely oval object, with a 
high power under the finest definition. Some 3 0 north-west 
of rj a new star blazed out in 1848, subsequently fading to prac- 
tical invisibility in small instruments. This neighbourhood 
should be watched. io° due east of Antares will be found 
36 Ophiuchi, a pretty and fairly easy pair. It is too close 
to the horizon, though, for fine definition in these latitudes. 
39 will be found i° north-west of 0 Ophiuchi. It is very 
nearly as badly situated as the last star. The components 
are not very close, but their colours are fine. Another 
star, much better placed, which may be looked at for the 
colours of its components, is 67, 4^° east-south-east of /3 
Ophiuchi. It is very wide, though, t, a most interesting 

Hosted by 



binary object, will, like A, prove a crucial test for. the observer. 
It will need an instrument of the highest class, a high power, 
a very sharp eye and an excellent night to do anything 
with it ; and even with these advantages it will only appear 
like A, as a misshapen star. 

70 Ophiuchi, 6° to the east-south-east of /?, is an interest- 
ing pair, shown in fig. 76. The colour of the smaller star is 
believed, with some reason, to be variable. 
It used to be violet or purple, and is now 
yellowish. Ophiuchus is remarkably rich 
in nebulous-looking star-clusters. As they 
are not marked in our map, the directions 
for finding them will, I fear, appear some- 
what vague. Beginning with 12 Messier, 
we shall find this about 8° 15' north-west 
by west of e. 10 Messier is nearly half- Y ^ g -J 6 \- 

' J J 70 Ophiuchi. 

way between (3 Librae and a Aquilae. 19 
Messier lies 7^° due east from Antares. 9 Messier will 
be found 3 0 south-east of rj Ophiuchi. About 6^° to the south 
by west of y lies 14 Messier; while, finally, 23 Messier 
Ophiuchi, a fine cluster, will be found about 5 0 north-west of 
(jl Sagittarii. 

Night Seven. 

The chief object in the constellation Scorpio, with which 
I shall begin to-night, a, or Antares (' The Stars in their 
Seasons,' Map VII.), is a double star, but, save under the 
most exceptional atmospheric circumstances, beyond the 
power of a three-inch object-glass. Nevertheless, on a 
superlatively fine evening, and with the highest power at his 
disposal, the student may pick up the companion as a minute 
green speck, or wen, attached horizontally to the left of the 
blazing red disc of Antares itself, v Scorpii will be seen at 
first sight as a wide double star, but a little attention will 
show that the smaller star is not single. (3 Scorpii is a 
pretty and easy pair, the contrast of colouring in its compo- 
nents being very pleasing. It is represented in fig. 77. 


Half-way between this and Antares, the cluster 80 Messier 
may be picked up. In the instrument we are employing, 
however, it will be seen as a nebulous object, strongly re- 
sembling a telescopic comet, o- is a pretty pair, but terribly 
near the horizon. If the student will draw a line from 
Antares to 77 Ophiuchi, and travel io° along it from a Scorpii, 
he will come upon 236 of Piazzi's hour xvi., a pretty little 
pair, which will repay scrutiny. Closely following 36 
Ophiuchi lies 31 Scorpii (this ought really to be 38 Ophiuchi) 
— a pretty severe test for a three-inch telescope at any time, 
and, at present, beyond its power. 

Adjoining Scorpio to the east is Sagittarius, but this need 
not detain us long, as only two suitable objects are to be 

Fig. 77.- /S Scorpii. Fig. 78— /x' Sagittarii. Fig. 79.— tt Aquike. 

found in the map which we are employing. These are /x l , a 
striking triple star represented in fig. 78 ; and 22 Messier, a 
pale nebulous mass half-way between /x and 0- Sagittarii. 
This (like 80 M. described above) is really a cluster, but is 
irresolvable with means at our disposal. 

Aquila, to the north of Sagittarius, is the next constella- 
tion we shall examine. Forming an equilateral triangle 
with e and £ AquikaL is n, a severe test . for the instrument 
we are employing. The minute companion, 19" above and 
to the left of the larger star, will require the highest power 
at the observer's disposal to see it at all. At the right hand 
extremity of the base of an isosceles triangle, whereof 
v Aquilse forms the other end and $ Aquilse the apex, 23 
Aquilse will be found. The comes of this is also a star thai 

Hosted by 


is invisible with any power less than 250 or so. ir Aquilae 
is a very good test indeed. Fig. 79 shows it as seen at 
moments of the best definition. ; 

In that pretty little constellation, Delphinus, the only star 
which need detain us is y, depicted in fig. 80. The con- 
trasted colours of the components will at once strike the 
observer's eye. 

And next, Lyra will claim our attention ; and, as is only 
natural, we shall begin by directing our telescope to its 
brilliant leader, Vega. Here, again, is a severe test, a fine 
night and a pretty high power being needed to glimpse the 
comes at all. In fig. 81 I give something of the appearance 
of this object, but it is impossible to reproduce in black and 

Fig. 80.— y Delphini. Fig. 81. — Vega. 

white the vivid blue blazes and the mouldings and twirlings 
of the diffraction rings which surround the great star. More- 
over, the size of the minute companion is exaggerated, or it 
could not print at all. Not far off we shall find another 
most interesting object. I refer to the double-double system 
e 1 and e 2 Lyrse, shown in fig. 82. Between the two pairs 
lies another minute star, shown in my sketch. There are 
two others smaller still ; they, however, require a larger aper- 
ture than ours to see them at all. £ Lyrse is a wider pair, 
but pretty from the contrasted colours of its components. 
Between /3 and y Lyrse, but nearer to the former star, will 
be found that astonishing object, 57 Messier Lyrae, the 
so-called ' Ring Nebula.' Fig. 83 is an attempt to give 
some idea of its , aspect as seen with a power of 70, but 


wood engraving does not lend itself well to the delineation 
of nebulae, rj Lyrae is a widish double, but interesting from 
the contrasted colours of its components. 

Fig. 82.— e 1 and e a Lyrae. Fig. 83. — 57 M. Lyrae. Fig. 84.-/3 Cygni. 

We will now turn to that glorious region occupied by 
Cygnus, in which the merest vague sweeping cannot fail to 
reveal innumerable objects of beauty and interest. I shall, 
though, select a few of the most striking ones in it for 
detailed description, as the student can easily wander over 
the constellation when he has examined them. I will begin, 
then, with ft, the lovely colours of whose components have 
always rendered it a favourite with the juvenile observer. 
Fig. 84 gives an idea of the general aspect of this star. i£° 
north of x nes another wide, but beautifully coloured pair, 
278 of Piazzi's hour xix. Nor is x itself less beauti- 
ful and interesting, contrasted colours again forming its 
chief charm. \j/ Cygni, a close and unequal pair, will re- 
quire a high power to see it. 2 0 south -west of e is 49 Cygni, 
shown in fig. 85 ; while 3 0 south of e lies 52, in which the com- 
ponents are a little more widely separated. In both cases, 
as is common in this constellation, the diversity of colours 
is very beautiful. If we draw an imaginary line from a 
through v Cygni, we shall come upon a star (marked, but 
not numbered, in 'The Stars in their Seasons/ Map IX.) 
which must always possess the highest interest for all astro- 
nomical students. This is 61 Cygni, the very first of those 
suns which fill the universe whose distance from the earth 
was determined by the illustrious Bessel. I need occupy 

Hosted by 


no further space, in a purely practical chapter like this, than to 
say that, so stupendous is the interval separating our solar 
system from this object that light (travelling 186,326 miles 

Fig. 85. — 4Q Cygni. Fig. 86. — 61 ^ygni Fig. 87.-27 M. Vulpeculas, 

a second) takes something like six years to pass across it ; so 
that the student whom my description may tempt to look 
at this interesting object will see it (not as it is to-night, but) 
as it was six years ago, when the light which enters his tele- 
scope left it ! 61 Cygni is shown in fig. 86. Cygnus is so 
crowded with beautiful fields of stars as to render any selec- 
tion of them for description difficult ; but the beginner may 
hunt up M. 39 (roughly, half-way between a and cu Cygni) 
to commence with, /x Cygni is a very pretty triple, the 
colour of the close pair presenting a pleasing contrast. 

If the reader will fish with a power of 70 or 80 between 
f3 Cygni and Delphinus, some 7 0 south-east of the former 
star be will strike upon that very curious object, 27 Messier 
Vulpeculae— the so-called 'Dumb-bell' nebula, of which, 
ridiculous pictures appear in certain works on popular 
astronomy. I have done what I can to present a portrait 
of this nebula in fig. 87. 

Night Eight. 

Capricornus is the next constellation which will claim 
our attention. It will not, however, detain us long here, as 
the objects in it identifiable upon Map IX. of 'The Stars 
•in their Seasons ; are not numerous. The first of them is 


that beautiful star, p Capricorni, represented in fig. 88. The 
contrast of colour is fine, o 2 is a pretty little pair, sufficiently 
wide apart to be resolvable with the lowest eye-piece. 30 
Messier, with a power of 70 or so, will be seen as a rather 
dim-looking nebula, with an eighth magnitude star just pre- 
ceding it (i.e., with an inverting eye-piece, to the left of it) 
It may be fished for to the left and below £ Capricorni, 
just above a line joining £ with Fomalhaut, and (roughly) at 
a sixth of the distance. 

Aquarius, a large constellation extending from the south- 
east corner of Aquila over the north and to the east of 
Capricornus, is replete with objects of interest suitable to 
the instrument we are employing. Numerous others, too 







Fig. 88. 

— p Capricorn!. 

Fig. 89.- 

- 41 Aquarii. 

Fig. yo. — £ Aquarii. 

small for inclusion in the maps we are supposed to be using, 
may be picked up by a systematic search. Proceeding, as 
is our wont, in the order of Right Ascension, the first object 
we arrive at is Herschel iv, 1, a very fine specimen of a 
planetary nebula. Somewhat resembling Uranus, but with- 
out his sharp outline, it is rather less than to the west of 
v Aquarii. Our next object, as it happens, is a nebula too, 
but of a totally different character. This is 2 Messier, a 
large, bright, and (for a nebula) conspicuous object. It is 
about 5 0 north and only just to the east of ft Aquarii. 
About 4 0 to the east by south of S Capricorni will be found 
that delicate little pair, 29 Aquarii, its components lying 
diagonally across the field. If we draw an imaginary line 
from S Capricorni to Fomalhaut, at rather more than one- 

Hosted by 


third of the distance from the former star we shall come 
upon even a prettier star still, 41 Aquarii, shown in fig. 89. 
f Aquarii is another beautiful object, closer than either of 
the last described, but perfectly easy with three inches of 
aperture and a power of 160. It is shown in fig. 90. r l 
(just below and to the right of t 2 in Map X. of 1 The Stars 
in their Seasons ') is wide, but very difficult, from the small- 
ness of its companion, which will be glimpsed to the right 
and a little above the larger star. is another wide pair, 
but interesting from the colours of its components, which 
are orange and blue. It will be found over the letter A in 
the middle of the word ' Aquarius ' in the map. Below the 
three stars lettered and at the right angle of a rudely 

Fig. 91.— 107 Aquarii. Fig. 92.— P. xx. 376 Equulei. 

right-angled triangle which it forms with them and 8, lie 
94 Aquarii, with its gracefully contrasted colours. Lastly, 
reference to the map will show a little group of stars to the 
right of 2 Ceti. The left hand of the three contiguous ones 
is 107 Aquarii, which is represented in fig. 91. Here, again, 
varied colours come in as an adjunct to, or element in, the 
beauty of the object. 

Over the western part of Aquarius we shall find Equuleus 
in the map. The second star to the right of the one marked 
1 there is No. 376 of Piazzi's hour xx., which I have 
represented in fig. 93, and which will well repay examination. 
Here, again, in this pretty close pair we have to note beauti- 
fully contrasted colours. € Equulei (the star marked 1 in 
the map), which we shall see as a double star, is really a 

1 2 


triple system ; but the extreme closeness of the companion 
of the larger star places it hopelessly beyond the reach of 
our aperture. X Equulei, represented in fig. 93, is a charm- 
ing and delicate pair, but quite easy to divide with our in- 
strumental means. Both components are white. 

Fig. 93. — A Equulei. Fig. 94.— 51 Piscium. Fig. 95.-65 Piscium. 

Adjoining Equuleus to the east is the large constellation 
Pegasus. 1 Pegasi, bordering on Vulpecula, is a very wide 
pair. It is inserted here for the finely contrasted colours 
of its components. If we join e Pegasi and 8 Equulei by 
an imaginary line, and consider this as the base of a very 
squat triangle having its apex to the north, then at this 
apex will be found 15 Messier Pegasi, a fine object, pre- 
senting the appearance of a bright nebula, with marked 
central condensation. It is really a brilliant cluster of stars, 
but a three-inch telescope is quite impotent to resolve it. 
e Pegasi is a very wide triple, but the colours render it 
interesting, k Pegasi will tax both the eye and the in- 
strument of the student severely. In fact, to see the 
minute comes at all he must remain in the dark for some 
little time, and even then he will only glimpse it ' out of 
the corner of his eye.' It is some 12" from its primary, 
below and to the left of it. I cannot give a diagram of 
it to scale, inasmuch as the minute star would not print at 

Bounded by Pegasus, Aquarius, Cetus, Aries, and 
Andromeda, is the straggling and not very intelligible 
constellation Pisces. If we draw an imaginary line from 

Hosted by 



y Pegasi to 77 Ceti, about one third of the way from the 
first-named star we shall come upon 51 Piscium, a wide but 
very pretty pair, represented in fig. 94. Note the lilac tint 
of the small companion. 55 Piscium, our next object, will 
be found some 7 0 along a line through 8 and e Andromedae, 
The components of this charming object are very much 
closer than those of the previous one, being, in fact, some- 
thing like one-fifth of the distance. The comes, though 
minute, will be detected without difficulty. About half- 
way between tt and 77 Andromedse we come upon 65 
Piscium, a fine and rather close 1 air of very nearly equal 
stars. This is shown in fig. 95. \j/ Piscium, the small un- 
named star to the south-east of 77 Andromedse on the map 
is another equal pair, but very considerably wider apart, and 
easily separable with the lowest eye -piece. £ is also a very 
wide and easy star, but in this case the components are un- 
equal. The last object identifiable from the map we are using 
is the leading star in the constellation, a. This fine pair is 
represented in fig. 96. 

Fig 96. — a Piscium- Fig. 97. — 1 Trianguli. 

Before quitting this region of the sky we will just 
direct our instrument to that lovely little pair, i Trianguli, 
which we inadvertently omitted while describing the constel- 
lation Aries on pp. 87 and 88. It is not lettered in the map to 
which I have so often referred, but is the star over the letter. 
U in Triangula.' Its aspect is shown in fig. 97. Its finely 
contrasted colours are unfortunately incapable of reproduc- 
tion on a wood block. 

Hosted byLjOOQLe 


Our final night I propose to devote to the circumpolar 
constellations, or those which wholly or in part remain 
always above our horizon in these latitudes. First, then, let 
us turn to, perhaps, the best known of them all — Ursa Major. 
We will begin by turning our telescope, armed with a power 
of 1 20, upon £ (Mizar). Sharp-sighted people will detect 
with the naked eye a small star (Alcor) in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Mizar. In the telescope, with the power 
specified, Mizar itself will be seen to be double, and form- 
ing with Alcor the pretty triple system shown in fig. 98. 

The pale green of the small star of the pair will be noted, 
f Ursae Majoris, examined with the very highest power at. 
the disposal of the observer, will furnish an absolutely 
crucial test of the excellence at once of his eye and tele- 
scope. 23 Ursae Majoris is rather a wide pair, but interest- 
ing from the different tints of its components. 57 is a pretty 
pair for a similar reason, but very much closer than the 
last ; it is unnumbered in the map. 65, a fine triple, is 
also unnumbered, but may be recognised to the south of \ 
on the boundary of Canes Venatici. y Ursae Majoris lies 
in a fine field of stars. This constellation, I may remark, 
swarms with double and triple stars, but, as in a large pro- 
portion of cases they are of less than the sixth magnitude, 
the map takes no account of them, and it would be useless 
to give their co-ordinates unless the observer's instrument 
were equatorially mounted. Several interesting nebulae are 
to be found in Ursa Major, but, in the case of the student 
for whom these papers are written, it can only be by fishing. 
If he will conceive an equilateral triangle to be described, 
with a and 23 Ursae Majoris at the extremities of its base ; 
then, by sweeping about to the right of its apex with the 
very lowest power he possesses, he may hit upon the two 
nebulae 81 and 82 Messier, ^° apart. About 2 0 (four dia- 
meters of the moon) south-east of ft is another nebula, 97 
Messier, a pale circular object, looking like the ghost of a 

Night Nine. 


planet. An imaginary line drawn diagonally from a through 
y Ursas, and continued nearly as far again, will strike upon 
y v. 43, an oval nebula. Half-way, too, between /3 and 
97 Messier lies $ v. 46. This will require some gating at 
with so small an aperture. 

And now we will direct our telescope, armed with a powei 
of 160, to the Pole Star, which will be seen as depicted in 
% 99- 

This is sometimes alleged to be a test for a three-inch 
telescope, but it is not so. Dawes has seen the companion 
with a i*3-inch object-glass, and the eagle-eyed Ward, of 
Belfast, with only 1 '25-inch aperture! North-west of 
£ Ursse Minoris will be found tt 1 , a wide and easy object. 

Fig. 98.--f Ursae Majoris. Fig. 99. -The Pole Star. Fig. 100.-77 Cassiopeia?. 

Cassiopeia is one of the constellations through which 
the Milky Way passes, and hence it affords innumerable 
rich fields and clusters to repay the observer who sweeps 
and fishes over it. y, to begin with, lies in a fine field of 
small stars. 77 Cassiopeia, shown in fig. 100, as viewed 
with a power of 160, is a beautiful object, the colours being 
so well contrasted. ^ is a triple star, but with our optical 
means will only be seen as a rather wide double, cr Cassio- 
peias, to the south of fi, is a beautiful, delicate, and by no 
means easy double star — a sort of miniature of c Bootis. 
About k, between y and k, lie some of the beautiful fields of 
stars to which reference has been made above. 

Camelopardus contains several more or less striking 
pairs, but as none of them are marked in our map of refer- 
ence we pass on to Lynx, where we find 38 (Map III. of 


' The Stars in their Seasons '), a very close, delicate, and 
rather difficult pair. 19 Lyncis is a pretty triple, but it does 
not appear on the map. 

The sprawling constellation Draco, which straggles over 
so much of the circumpolar sky, is our next in order for 
examination. From its situation the amateur can scarcely 
expect to scrutinise many of its chief objects in succession 
without getting a backache, and a stiff neck to boot, so 
inconveniently are they placed. Let us, however, express 
a hope that the intellectual pleasure to be derived from 
such a search may quite outweigh its concomitant physical 
discomfort. If we draw a line from y Draconis, through 
/3, and carry it on twice the distance between them, we 
shall strike 17 Draconis, a pretty and interesting triple. 
(a. Draconis, a close but easy pair, is shown in fig. 101. 
Rather more than 1J 0 south of ft Draconis is a small but 
very pretty double star, 147 of Piazzi's hour xvii. It 
is invisible to the naked eye. If we draw a line from the 
Pole Star to y Draconis, and fish on it, about half-way 
between those stars, with a low power, we shall light upon 
that strange object, Herschel 37, iv. Draconis. This is 
the nebula which our greatest living English spectroscopist, 
Dr. Huggins, found to be gaseous, in 1864. Viewed in the 
instrument employed for the purpose of these papers, it 
presents the appearance of a large pale blue star out of 
focus. South-east of e Ursse Minoris, 40 Draconis will be 
fjund. It is a wide and easy pair. 39 Draconis, half-way 
between y and 8, appears in the books as a triple star. It 
will require an extremely fine night and a high power, how- 
ever, to show the comes to the principal star, whose light 
and proximity quite overpower it ; so that it will ordinarily 
appear as a very wide double only, in a three-inch telescope, 
o Draconis is a wide pair, but the colours are very pretty. 
The last object in this constellation which we shall look at 
to-night, e Draconis, will form a severe test, -at once for 
the observer's instrument and his eye, and for the state of 
the atmosphere. He must employ the highest power at 

Hosted by 


his command, and even then the companion will often be 
involved in the diffraction ring surrounding the larger star. 
Fig. 102 gives an idea of this star when caught at moments 
of the best vision. 

Fig. 101.— ix Draconis. Fig. 102.— e Draconis. 

An examination of one more circumpolar constellation — 
I mean Cepheus — will complete our survey of the heavens, 
round the whole twenty-four hours of which we have now 
travelled. To begin with, the reader may find a very severe 
test for the light- grasping power of his instrument, and the 
excellence of his own eye, in 191 of Piazzi's hour ii., which 
lies at a distance of some io° on a line leading from the 
Pole Star to f3 Persei. The components are close, and the 
observer will need a very dark night and excellent definition 

Fig. 103. — k Cephei. Fig. 104. — £ Cephei. Fig. 105. — 0 Cephei. 

to see the companion at all. k Cephei (shown, but not 
lettered, in the map in an odd little corner of the constella- 
tion running into Draco) is a fine pair, which will be seen 
as in fig. 103. is a wider, and also an unequal pair. 
jt_ each of these cases the small star is blue. To the east- 


north-east of a Cephei is a vertical line of small stars. The 
upper one of these is f, a tolerably close and somewhat 
unequal pair, which will repay examination. It is repre- 
sented in fig. 104. 8 Cephei is a beautiful object, being, 
as Webb says, 'something like ft Cygni.' Finally we arrive 
at o Cephei, a very close and unequal pair, delineated in 
fig. 105. Both in this and 8 the small stars are. blue, as 
are, curiously, so many of the comites in this constellation. 

I may say in conclusion that in these chapters I have 
simply endeavoured to describe a few of the chief and most 
easily recognisable objects on the face of the celestial vault, 
that are well within the optical power of a three-inch tele- 
scope. Had I been justified in assuming that all my readers 
were in possession of Proctor's admirable 4 Star Atlas,' I 
might have extended my list almost indefinitely. Even as 
it is, I may be permitted to express a hope that I have not 
wholly failed in my attempt to indicate what a mine of in- 
struction and delight lies before the possessor of even so 
small an instrument as that to which my descriptions have 
had reference. 

Finally, in connection with the stellar portion of the 
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inch telescope desire to verify what he may have heard or 
read with reference to spectrum analysis, as applied to these 
distant suns we have been examining, McClean's Star Spec- 
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ment as that whose employment I have presupposed. With 
that exceedingly ingenious little instrument the spectra of 
such stars as Sirius, Vega, Aldebaran, or a Ononis may be 
fairly well seen, even in a three- inch telescope. 

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Wild Animals of the Tropics (from ' The 
Tropical World '). With 66 Illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo. 3s. Qd. cloth extra, 
gilt edges. 

By the Rev. J. G-. Wood. 

The Branch Builders (from * Homes 
without Hands '). With 28 Illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo. 2s. Qd. cloth extra, 
gilt edges. 

Wild Animals of the Bible (from ' Bible 
Animals'). With 29 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. 3s. Qd. cloth extra, gilt 

Domestic Animals of the Bible (from 
'Bible Animals'). With 23 Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo. 3s. Qd. cloth 
extra, gilt edges. 

Bird Life of the Bible (from 'Bible 
Animals'). With 32 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. 3s. Qd. cloth extra, gilt 

Wonderful Nests (from ' Homes with- 
out Hands '). With 30 Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo. 3s. Qd. cloth extra, gilt 

Homes Under the Ground (from 
• 4 Homes without Hands '). With 
28 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 3s. Qd. 
cloth extra, gilt edges. 


Arnott's Elements of Physics or Natural Philosophy. Crown 8vo. 12s. Qd. 
Barrett's English dees and Part-Songs : their Historioal Development. 

Crown 8vo. 7s. Qd. 
Bourne's Catechism of the Steam Engine, Crown 8vo. 7s. Qd. 

— Handbook of the Steam Engine. Fcp. 8vo. 9s. 

— Recent Improvements in the Steam Engine. Fcp, 8vo. 6s. 
Buckton's Our Dwellings, Healthy and Unhealthy. Crown 8vo. 3s. Qd. 
Clerk's The G-as Engine. With Illustrations, Crown 8vo. 7s. Qd* 
Crookes's Select Methods in Chemical Analysis. 8vo. 24s. 

Culley's Handbook of Practical Telegraphy. 8vo. 16s. 

Fairbairn's Useful Information for Engineers. 3 vols, crown 8vo. 31s. Qd. 

— Mills and Millwork. 1 vol. 8vo. 25s. 
G-anot's Elementary Treatise on Phvsics, by Atkinson. Large crown 8vo. 16s. 

— Natural Philosophy, by Atkinson. Crown 8vo. 7s. Qd. 
Grove's Correlation of Physical Forces. 8vo. 15s. 
Haughton's Six Lectures on Physical Geography. 8vo. 15s. 

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General Lists of Works. 

Helmholtz on the Sensations of Tone. Royal 8vo. 28*. 

Helmholtz's Lectures on Scientific Subjects. 2 vols, crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. each. 

Hudson and Gosse's The Rotifera or « Wheel Animalcules.' "With 30 Coloured 

Plates. 6 parts. 4to. 10s. 6d. each. Complete, 2 vols. 4to. £3. 10s. 
Hullah's Lectures on the History of Modern Music. 8vo. 8s. 6d. 

— Transition Period of Musical History. 8vo. 10s. 6d. 
Jackson's Aid to Engineering Solution. Royal 8vo. 21s. 

Jago's Inorganic Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical. Pep. 8vo. 2s. 
Jeans' Railway Problems. 8vo. 12s. 6d. 

Kolbe's Short Text-Book of Inorganic Chemistry. Urown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 
Lloyd's Treatise on Magnetism. 8vo. 10s. Bd. 

Macalister's Zoology and Morphology of Vertebrate Animals. 8vo. 10s. Bd. 
Maofarren's Lectures on Harmony. 8vo. 12s. 

Miller's Elements of Chemistry, Theoretical and Practical. 3 vols. 8vo. Part I. 

Chemical Physics, 16s. Part II. Inorganic Chemistry, 24s. Part III. Organic 

Chemistry, price 31s. 6d. 
Mitchell's Manual of Practical Assaying. 8vo. 31s. 6d. 
Noble's Hours with a Three-inch Telescope. Crown 8vo. 4s. 6d. 
Northoott's Lathes and Turning. 8vo. 18s. 

Owen's Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Vertebrate Animals. 

3 vols. 8vo. 73s. 6d. 
Piesse's Art of Perfumery. Square crown 8vo. 21s. 

Richardson's The Health of Nations ; Works and Life of Edwin Chad wick, C.B. 
2 vols. 8vo. 28s. 

— The Commonhealth ; a Series of Essays. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Schellen's Spectrum Analysis. 8vo. 31s. Bd. 
Sennett's Treatise on the Marine Steam Engine. 8vo. 21s. 
Smith's Air and Rain. 8vo. 24s. 

Stoney's The Theory of the Stresses on Girders, &c. Royal 8vo. 36s. 
Tilden's Practical Chemistry. Pep." 8vo. Is. Gd. 
Tyndall's Faraday as a Discoverer. Crown 8vo. 3s. Bd, 

— Floating Matter of the Air. Crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 

— Fragments of Science. 2 vols, post 8vo. 16s. 
— ■• Heat a Mode of Motion. Crown 8vo. 12s. 

— Lectures on Light delivered in America. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

— Lessons on Electricity. Crown 8vo. 2s. Qd. 

— Notes on Electrical Phenomena. Crown 8vo. Is. sewed, Is. 6d. oloth. 

— Notes of Lectures on Light. Crown 8vo. Is. sewed, Is. (id. cloth. 

— Sound, with Frontispiece and 203 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 10s. Bd. 
Watts's Dictionary of Chemistry. 9 vols, medium 8vo. £15. 2s. Bd. 
Wilson's Manual of Health-Science. Crown 8vo. 2s. Bd. 


Arnold's (Rev. Dr. Thomas) Sermons. 6 vols, crown 8vo. 5s. each. 

Boultbee's Commentary on the 39 Articles. - Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Browne's (Bishop) Exposition of the 39 Articles. 8vo. 16s. 

Bullinger's Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New 

Testament. Royal 8vo. 15s. 
Colenso on the Pentateuch and Book of Joshua. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Conder's Handbook of the Bible. Post 8vo. 7s. Bd. 

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General Lists of Works. 


Conybeare & Howson's Life and Letters of St. Paul :— 

Library Edition, with Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts. 2 vols, square crown 
8vo. 21s. 

Student's Edition, revised and condensed, with 46 Illustrations and Maps. 
1 vol. crown 8vo. 7 s. Bd. 
Cox's (Homersham) The First Century of Christianity. 8vo. 12*. 
Davidson's Introduction to the Study of the New Testament. 2 vols. 8vo. 30s. 
Edersheim's Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. 2 vols. 8vo. 24.?. 

— Prophecy and History in relation to the Messiah. 8vo. 12s. 
Ellioott's (Bishop) Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles. 8vo. Corinthians I. 16s. 

G-alatians, 8s. Bd. Ephesians, 8s. Bd. Pastoral Epistles, 10s. 6<2. Philippians, 
Colossians and Philemon, 10s. Bd. Thessalonians, 7s. Bd. 

— Lectures on the Life of our Lord. 8vo. 12s. 
Ewald's Antiquities of Israel, translated by Solly. 8vo. 12s. Bd. 

— Historv of Israel, translated bv Carpenter & Smith. 8 vols. 8vo. Vols. 

1 & 2, 24s. Vols. 3 & 4, 21s. "Vol. 5, 18s. Yol. 6, 16s. "Vol. 7, 21s. 
Vol. 8, 18s. 

Hobart's Medical Language of St. Luke. 8vo. 16s. 
Hopkins's Christ the Consoler. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. Bd. 
Jukes's New Man and the Eternal Life. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

— Second Death and the Restitution of all Things. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

— Types of Genesis. Crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 

— The Mystery of the Kingdom. Crown 8vo. 3s. Od. 

Lehormant's New Translation of the Book of Genesis. Translated into English. 
8vo. 10s. ad. 

Lyra Germanica : Hymns translated by Miss "Winkworth. Fcp. 8vo. 5s. 
Macdonald's (G.) Unspoken Sermons. Two Series, Crown 8vo. 3s. Bd. each. 

— The Miracles of our Lord. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

Manning's Temporal Mission of the Holy Ghost. Crown 8vo. Ss. Bd. 
Martineau's Endeavours after the Christian Life. Crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 

— Hymns of Praise and Prayer. Crown 8vo. 4s. Bd. 32mo. Is. Bd. 

— Sermons, Hours of Thought on Sacred Things. 2 vols. 7s. Bd. each. 
Monsell's Spiritual Songs for Sundays and Holidays. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 18mo. 2s. j 
MUller's (Max) Origin and Growth of Religion. Crown 8vo. 7s. Bd. 

— — Science of Religion. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. 
Newman's Apologia pro Vit& Sua. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

— The Idea of a University Defined and Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 7s. 

— Historical Sketches. 3 vols, crown 8vo. 6s. each. 

— Discussions and Arguments on Various Subjects. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

— An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

— Certain Difficulties Felt by Anglicans In Catholic Teaching Con- 

sidered. Vol. 1, crown 8vo. 7s. 6d. Vol. 2, crown 8vo. 5s. 6d. 

— The Via Media of the Anglican Church, Illustrated in Lectures, &o. 

2 vols, crown 8vo. 6s. each 

— Essays, Critical and Historical. 2 vols, crown 8vo. 12s. 

— Essays on Biblical and on Ecolesiastical Miracles. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

— An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent. 7s. Bd. 
Overton's Life in the English Church (1660-1714), 8vo. 14s. 

Supernatural Religion. Complete Edition. 3 vols. 8vo. 36s. j 
Younghusband's The Story of Our Lord told in Simple Language for Children. ! 
Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 2s. Bd. cloth plain ; 3s. Gd. cloth extra, gilt edges. I 

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10 General Lists of Works. 


Baker's Eight Years in Ceylon. Crown 8vo. 55. 

— Rifle and Hound in Ceylon. Crown 8vo. 5s. 
Brassey's Sunshine and Storm in the East. Library Edition, 8vo. 21 s. Cabinet 
Edition, crown 8vo. 7s. Gd. Popular Edition, 4to. Gd. 

— Voyage in the * Sunbeam.' Library Edition, 8vo. 21s. Cabinet Edition, 

crown 8vo. 7s. 6<Z. School Edition, fcp. 8vo. 2s. Popular Edition, 
4to. 6d. 

— In the Trades, the Tropics, and the ' Roaring Forties.' Library Edition, 

8vo.21s. Cabinet Edition, crown 8vo. 17s. Gd. Popular Edition, 
4to. Gd. 

Froude's Oceana ; or, England and her Colonies. Crown 8vo. 2s. boards ; 2s. Gd. 

Howitt's Visits to Remarkable Places. Crown 8yo. 75. 6d. 
Riley's Athos ; or, The Mountain of the Monks. 8vo. 21$. 
Three in Norway. By Two of Them. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 2s. boards ; 
2s. Gd. cloth. 


Beaconsfield's (The Earl of) Novels and Tales. Hughenden Edition, with 2 
Portraits on Steel and 11 Vignettes on "Wood. 11 vols, crown 8vo. £2. 2s. 
Cheap Edition, 11 vols, crown 8vo. Is. each, boards ; Is. Gd. each, cloth. 

Contarini Fleming. 
Alroy, Ixion, &c. 
The Young Duke, &c. 
Vivian G-rey. 


Henrietta Temple. 
Brabourne's (Lord) Friends and Foes from Fairyland. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Caddy's (Mrs.) Through the Fields with Linneeus : a Chapter in Swedish History. 

2 vols, crown 8vo. 16s. 
Gilkes' Boys and Masters. Crown 8vo. 3s. Gd. 
Haggard's (H. Rider) She: a History of Adventure. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

— — Allan Quatermain. Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
Harte (Bret) On the Frontier. Three Stories. 16mo. Is. 

— — By Shore and Sedge. Three Stories. 16mo. Is. 

— — In the Carquinez "Woods. Crown 8vo. Is. boards ; Is. Gd. cloth. 
LvaH's (Edna) The Autobiography of a Slander. Fcp. Is. sewed. 

Melville's (Whyte) Novels. 8 vols. fcp. 8vo. Is. each, boards ; Is. Gd. each, cloth . 
Digby Grand. J Good for Nothing. 

General Bounce. I Holmby House. 

Kate Coventry. I The Interpreter. 

The Gladiators. I The Queen's Maries. 

Molesworth's (Mrs.) Marrying and Giving in Marriage. Crown 8vo. 2s. Gd. 
Novels by the Author of ' The A.telier du Lys ' : 

The Atelier du Lys ; or, An Art Student in the Reign of Terror. Crown 
8vo. 2s. Gd. 

Mademoiselle Mori: a Tale of Modern Rome. Crown 8vo. 2s. Gd. 
In the Olden Time : a Tale of the Peasant War in Germany. Crown 8vo. 2s. Gd. 
Hester's Venture. Crown 8vo. 2s. Gd. 
Oliphant's (Mrs.) Madam. Crown 8vo. Is. boards ; Is. Gd. cloth. 

— — In Trust : the Story of a Lady and her Lover. Crown 8vo. 

Is. boards ; Is. Gd. cloth. 

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Hosted by 

General Lists of Works. 11 

Payn's (James) The Luck of the Darrells. Crown 8vo. Is. boards ; Is. 6d. cloth. 

— — Thicker than Water. Crown 8vo. Is. boards ; Is. Gd. cloth. 
Reader's Fabry Prince Follow-my-Lead. Crown 8vo. 2s. Gd. 

— The Ghost of Brankinshaw ; and other Tales. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. Gd. 
Sewell's (Miss) Stories and Tales. Crown 8vo. Is. each, boards ; Is. Gd. cloth ; 

2s. Gd. cloth extra, gilt edges. 
Amy Herbert. Cleve Hall. A Glimpse of the World. 

The Earl's Daughter. Katharine Ashton. 

Experience of Life. Laneton Parsonage. 

Gertrude. Ivors. Margaret Percival. Ursula. 

Stevenson's (R. L.) The Dynamiter. Pep. 8vo. Is. sewed ; Is. Qd, cloth. 

— — Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Fcp. 8vo. Is. 
sewed ; Is. Qd. cloth. 
Sturgis' Thraldom : a Story. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Trollope's (Anthony) Novels. Fcp. 8vo. Is. each, boards ; Is. Gd. cloth. 
The Warden | Barchester Towers. 


Armstrong's (Ed. J.) Poetical Works. Fcp. 8vo. 5s. 
— (G. F.) Poetical Works :— 

Poems, Lyrical and Dramatic. Fcp. King Saul. Fcp. 8vo. 5s. 

8vo. 6s. King David. Fcp. Svo. 6s. 

Dgone : a Tragedy. Fcp. Svo. 6s. King Solomon. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. I 

A Garland from Greece. Fcp. 8vo. 9s. Stories of Wicklow. Fcp. 8 vo. 9s. j 

Bowen's Harrow Songs and other Verses. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d. ; or printed on i 

band-made paper, 5s. j 

Bowdler's Family Shakespeare. Medium 8vo. 14s. 6 vols. fcp. 8vo. 21s. { 
Dante's Divine Comedy, translated by James Innes Minchin. Crown 8vo. 15s. 

Goethe's Faust, translated by Birds. Large crown 8vo. 12s. Gd. ; 

— — translated by Webb. 8vo. 12s. Gd. ', 

— — edited by Selss. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

Ingelow's Poems. Vols. 1 and 2, fcp. 8vo. 12s. j 

— Lyrical and other Poems. Fcp. Svo. 2s. Gd, cloth, plain ; 3s. cloth, : 

gilt edges. 

Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome, with Ivry and the Armada. Illustrated by \ 
Weguelin. Crown 8vo. 3s. Gd. gilt edges. j 
The same, Popular Edition. Illustrated by Scharl. Fcp. 4to. Gd. swd., Is. cloth. 
Ne6bit's Lays and Legends. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

Reader's Voices from Flowerland, a Birthday Book, 2s. Gd. cloth, 3s. Gd, roan. 
Southey's Poetical Works. Medium Svo. 14s. | 
Stevenson's A Child's Garden of Verses. Fcp. 8vo. 5s. 

Virgil's iEneid, translated by Conington. Crown 8vo. 9s. < 

— Poems, translated into English Prose. Crown 8vo. 9s. 


Fitzwygram's Horses and Stables. 8vo. 5s. 
Lloyd's The Science of Agriculture. 8vo. 12s. 
Loudon's Encyclopasdia of Agriculture. 21s. 

Steel's Diseases of the Ox, a Manual of Bovine Pathology. 8vo. 15s. 

LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO., London and New York. 


General Lists of Works. 

Stonehenge's Dog in Health and Disease. Square crown 8yo. 7s. Qd. 

— Greyhound. Square crown 8vo. 155. 
Taylor's Agricultural Note Book. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. Qd. 
Ville on Artificial Manures, by Crookes. 8vo. 21s. 
Youatt's Work on the Dog. 8vo. 6s. 

— — — — Horse. 8vo. 7s. Qd. 


The Badminton Library oi Sports and Pastimes. Edited by the Duke of Beaufort 
and A. B. T. Watson. With numerous Illustrations. Or. 8vo. 10*. Qd. each. 

Hunting, by the Duke of Beaufort, &c. 

Pishing, by H. Cholmondeley-Pennell, &o. 2 vols. 

Raoing, by the Earl of Suffolk, &c. 

Shooting, by Lord Walsingham, &c. 2 vols. 

Cycling. By Viscount Bury. 

*** Other Volumes in preparation. 
Campbell-Walker's Correct Card, or How to Play at Whist. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. Qd. 
Ford's Theory and Practice of Archery, revised by W. Butt. 8vo. 14s. 
Francis's Treatise on Fishing in all its Branches. Post 8vo. 15s. 
Longman's Chess Openings. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. Qd. 

Pease's The Cleveland Hounds as a Trencher-Fed Pack. Royal 8vo. 18s. 
Pole's Theory of the Modern Scientific Game of Whisfc. Fop. 8vo. 2s. Qd. 
Proctor's How to Play Whist. Crown 8vo. 5s. 
Eonalds's Fly-Fisher's Entomology. 8vo. 14s. 
Verney's Chess Eccentricities. Crown 8vo. 10s. Qd. 
Wilcocks's Sea-Fisherman. Post 8vo. 6s. 


Acton's Modern Cookery for Private Families. Fcp. 8vo. 4s. Qd. 
Ayre's Treasury of Bible Knowledge. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 

Brande's Dictionary of Science, Literature, and Art. 3 vols, medium 8vo. 63s. 
Cabinet Lawyer (The), a Popular Digest of the Laws of England. Fcp. 8vo. 9s. 
Cates's Dictionary of General Biography. Medium 8vo. 28s. 
G-wilt's Encyclopaedia of Architecture. 8vo. 52s. Qd. 

Keith Johnston's Dictionary of Geography, or General Gazetteer. 8vo. 42s. 
M'Culloch's Dictionary of Commerce and Commercial Navigation. 8vo. 63s. 
Maunder's Biographical Treasury. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 

_ Historical Treasury. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 

_ Scientific and Literary Treasury. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 

_ Treasury of Bible Knowledge, edited by Ayre. Fop. 8vo. 6s. 

Treasury of Botany, edited by Lindley & Moore. Two Parts, 12s, 

— Treasury of Geography. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 

Treasury of Knowledge and Library of Reference. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 

_ Treasury of Natural History. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 
Quain's Dictionary of Medicine. Medium 8vo. 31s. Qd., or in 2 vols. 34s. 
Reeve's Cookery and Housekeeping. Crown 8vo. 7s. Qd. 
Rich's Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities. Crown 8vo. 7s. Qd. 
Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. Crown 8vo. 10s. Qd. 
Willich's Popular Tables, by Marriott. Crown 8vo. 10s. Qd. A 

LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO,, London and New York. 






Abney's Treatise on Photography. Pep. 8vo. 3$. 6d. 
Anderson's Strength of Materials. 3s. 6d. 
Armstrong's Organic Chemistry. 3s. 6d. 
Ball's Elements of Astronomy. 6s. 
Barry's Railway Appliances. Bs. 6d. 
Bauerman's Systematic Mineralogy. 6$. 

— Descriptive Mineralogy. 65. 
Bloxam and Huntington's Metals. 55. 
Glazebrook's Physical Optics. 65. 
Glazebrook and Shaw's Practical Physics. 65. 
Gore's Art of Electro-Metallurgy. 65. 

Griffin's Algebra and Trigonometry. 35. 6d. Notes and Solutions, 35. 6d. 

Holmes's The Steam Engine. 6s. 

Jenkin's Electricity and Magnetism. 35. 6d. 

Maxwell's Theory of Heat. 35. 6d. 

Merrifield's Technical Arithmetic and Mensuration. 35. 6d. Key, 35. 6d. 

Miller's Inorganic Chemistry. 35. 6d. 

Preece and Sivewright's Telegraphy. 65. 

Rutley's Study of Rocks, a Text-Book of Petrology. 45. 6d. 

Shelley's Workshop Appliances. 45. 6d. 

Thome's Structural and Physiological Botany. 6s. 

Thorpe's Quantitative Ohemioal Analysis. 4s. 6d. 

Thorpe and Muir's Qualitative Analysis. 3s. 6d. 

Tilden's Chemical Philosophy. 3s. 6d. With Answers to Problems, is. 6d. 
Unwin's Elements of Machine Design. 6s. 
Watson's Plane and Solid Geometry. 3s. 6d. 


Bloomfield's College and School Greek Testament. Pep. 8vo. bs. 
Bolland & Lang's Politics of Aristotle. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 
Collis's Chief Tenses of the Greek Irregular Verbs. 8vo. Is. 
.— • Pontes Greeci, Stepping-Stone to Greek Grammar. 12mo. 3s. 6d. 

— Praxis Grseca, Etymology. 12mo. 2s. 6d. 

— Greek Verse-Book, Praxis Iambica. 12mo. 4s. 6d. 
Parrar's Brief Greek Syntax and Accidence. 12mo. 4s. 6d. 

— Greek Grammar Rules for Harrow School. 12mo. Is. 6d. 
Geare's Notes on Thucydides. Book I. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 
Hewitt's Greek Examination-Papers. 12mo. Is. 6d. 

Isbister's Xenophon's Anabasis, Books I. to III. with Notes. 12mo. 3s. 6d. 
Jerram's Graece Reddenda. Crown 8vo. Is. 6d. 

LONG-MANS, GREEN, & CO., London and New York. 

14 A Selection of Educational Works. 

Kennedy's Greek Grammar. 12mo. 4s. Gd. 

Liddell & Seott's English-Greek Lexicon. 4to. 36s. ; Square 12mo. 75. 6c?. 
Mahaffy's Classical Greek Literature. Crown 8vo. Poets, 7s. 6c?. Prose Writers, 
7s. 6d. 

Morris's Greek Lessons. Square 18mo. Part I. 2s. 6d. ; Part II. Is. 
Parry's Elementary Greek Grammar. 12mo. 3s. 6c?. 

Plato's Republic, Book I. Greek Text, English Notes by Hardy. Crown 8vo. 3s. 
Sheppard and Evans's Notes on Thucydides. Crown 8vo. 7s. 6c?. 
Thucydides, Book IY. with Notes by Barton and Chavasse. Crown 8vo. 5s, 
Valpy's Greek Delectus, improved by White. 12mo. 2s. 6d. Key, 2s. 6d. 
White's Xenophon's Expedition of Cyrus, with English Notes. 12mo. 7s. 6c?. 
Wilkins's Manual of Greek Prose Composition. Crown 8vo. 5s. Key, 5s. 

— Exercises in Greek Prose Composition. Crown 8vo. 4s. Gd. Key, 2s. 6c?. 

— New Greek Delectus. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6c?. Key, 2s. Gd. 

— Progressive Greek Delectus. 12mo. 4s. Key, 2s. 6d. 

— Progressive Greek Anthology. 12mo. 5s. 

— Scriptores Attici, Excerpts with English Notes. Crown 8vo. 7s. Gd. 

— Speeches from Thucydides translated. Post 8vo. 6s. 
Yonge's English-Greek Lexicon. 4to. 21s. ; Square 12mo. 8s. 6c?. 


Bradley's Latin Prose Exercises. 12mo. 3s. 6c?. Key, 5s. 

— Continuous Lessons in Latin Prose. 12mo. 5s. 'Key, 5s. 6e?. 

— Cornelius Nepos, improved by White. 12mo. 3s. Gd. 

— Eutropius, improved by White. 12mo. 2s. 6c?. 

— Ovid's Metamorphoses, improved by White. 12mo. 4s. Gd. 

— Select Fables of Phsedrus, improved by White. 12mo. 2s. Gd. 
Collis's Chief Tenses of Latin Irregular Verbs. 8vo. Is. 

— Pontes Latini, Stepping-Stone to Latin Grammar. 12mo. 3s. Gd. 
Hewitt's Latin Examination-Papers. 12mo. Is. 6c?. 

Isbister's Caesar, Books I.-VII. 12mo. 4s. ; or with Reading Lessons, 4s. Gd. 

— Caesar's Commentaries, Books L-V. 12mo. 3s. 6c?. 

— First Book of Caesar's Gallic/War. 12mo. Is. Gd. 
Jerram's Latine Reddenda. Crown 8vo. Is. 6c?. 

Kennedy's Child's Latin Primer, or First Latin Lessons. 12mo. 2s. 

— Child's Latin Accidence. 12mo. Is. 

— Elementary Latin Grammar. 12mo. 3s. Gd. 

— Elementary Latin Reading Book, or Tirocinium Latinum. 12mo. 2s. 

— Latin Prose, Palaestra Stili Latini. 12mo. 6s. 

— Latin Vocabulary. 12mo. 2s. Gd. 

— Subsidia Primaria, Exercise Books to the Public School Latin Primer. 

I. Accidence and Simple Construction, 2s. 6c?. II. Syntax, 3s. 6c?. 

— Key to the Exercises in Subsidia Primaria, Parts I. and*II. price 5s. 

— Subsidia Primaria, III. the Latin Compound Sentence. 12mo. Is. 

— Curriculum Stili Latini. 12mo. 4s. 6c?. Key, 7s. Gd. 

— Palaestra Latina, or Second Latin Reading Book. 12mo. 5s. 

LONGMANS, GKEEN, & CO., London and New York. 

A Selection of Educational Works. 


Millington's Latin Prose Composition. Crown 8vo. 35. Qd. 

— Selections from Latin Prose. Crown 8vo. 2s. Qd. 
Moody's Eton Latin G-rammar. 12mo. 2s. Qd. The Accidence separately, 1*. 
Morris's Elementa Latina. Fcp. 8vo. Is. Qd. Key, 2s. Qd. 
Parry's Origiries Romanse, from Livy, with English Notes. Crown 8vo. 45. 
The Public School Latin Primer. 12mo. 25. Qd. 

— — — — G-rammar, by Rev. Dr. Kennedy. Post 8vo. 75. Qd. 
Prendergast's Mastery Series, Manual of Latin. 12mo. 25. Qd. 
Rapier's Introduction to Composition of Latin Verse. 12mo. 35. Qd. Key, 25. Qd. 
Sheppard and Turner's Aids to Classical Study. 12mo. 55. Key, 65. 
Valpy's Latin Delectus, improved by White. 12mo. 25. Qd. Key, 35. Qd. 
Virgil's 2Eneid, translated into English Verse by Conington. Crown 8vo. 95. 

— Works, edited by Kennedy. Crown 8vo. 10s. Qd. 

— — translated into English Prose by Conington. Crown 8vo. 95. 
Watford's Progressive Exercises in Latin Elegiac Verse. 12mo. 25. Qd. Key, 65. 
White and Riddle's Large Latin-English Dictionary. 1 vol. 4to. 215. 

White's Concise Latin-Eng. Dictionary for University Students. Royal 8vo. 125. 

— Junior Students' Ehg.-Lat. & Lat.-Eng. Dictionary. Square 12mo. 55. 

Qonovo+oiTT / The Latin-English Dictionary, price 35. 
separately j The Englisn _ Latin Dictionary, price 35. 

Yonge's Latin G-radus. Post 8vo. 95. ; or with Appendix, 125. 


jEsop (Fables) & Palsephatus (Myths). 

32mo. 15. 
Euripides, Hecuba. 25. 
Homer, Iliad, Book I. 15. 

— Odyssey, Book I. 15. 
Lucian, Select Dialogues. 15. 
Xenophon, Anabasis, Books I. III. IV. 

V. & VI. 15. Qd. each ; Book II. 15. ; 

Book VII. 25. 

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15. Qd. each. 
The Acts of the Apostles. 2s. Qd. 
St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. ls.Qd. 

The Four Gospels in Greek, with Greek-English Lexicon. Edited by John T. 
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Ca3sar, Gallic War, Books I. & II. V. 

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dd. each. 

Csesar, Gallic War, Book VII. I5. Qd. 
Cicero, Cato Major (Old Age). 15. Qd. 
Cicero, Leelius (Friendship). 15. Qd. 
Eutropius, Roman Historv, Books I. 

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Nepos, Miltiades, Simon, Pausaniai, 
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Ovid. Selections from Epistles and 
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Ovid, Select Myths from Metamor- 
phoses. 9d. 

Phsedrus, Select Easy Fables, 

Phajdrus, Fables, Books I. & II. Is. 

Sallust, Bellum Catilinarium. Is. Qd. 

Virgil, Georgics, Book IV. Is. 

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16 A Selection of Educational Works. 


Albites's How to Speak French. Pep. 8vo. 55. Qd. 

— Instantaneous French Exercises. Fop. 2s. Key, 2s. 
Cassal's French G-enders. Crown 8vo. 3*. Qd. 

Oassal & Karcher's Graduated French Translation Book. Part I. 3a. Qd. 

Part II. 5«. Key to Part I. by Professor Oassal, price 55. 
Contanseau's Practical French and English Dictionary. Post 8vo. 35. Qd. 

— Pocket French and English Dictionary. Square 18mo. Is. Qd. 

— Premieres Lectures. 12mo. 2s. 6d. 

— First Step in French. 12mo. 25. Qd. Key, 35. 

— French Accidence. 12mo. 25. Qd. 1 

— — Grammar. 12mo. 45. Key, 35. 
Contanseau's Middle-Glass French Course. Fcp. 8vo. : — 

Frenoh Translation-Book, 8d. 
Easy French Delectus, 8d. 
First French Reader, 8d. 
Second French Reader, 8d. 
French and English Dialogues, 8d. 

Accidence, 8d. 
Syntax, 8d. 

Frenoh Conversation-Book, 8d. 
First French Exercise-Book, 8d. 
Second French Exercise-Book, 8d. 
Contanseau's G-uide to French Translation. 12mo. 35. Qd. Key 35. Qd. 

— Prosateurs et Poetes Francais. 12mo. 55. 

— Precis de la Litterature Franchise. 12mo. 35. Qd. 

— Abrege de l'Histoire de France. 12mo. 25. Qd. 

Feval's Chouans et Bleus, with Notes by C. Sankey, M.A. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. Qd. 

Jerram's Sentences for Translation into French. Cr. 8vo. Is. Key, 25. Qd. 

Prendergast's Mastery Series, French. 12mo. 25. Qd. 

Souvestre's Philosophe sous les Toits, by Stievenard. Square 18mo. Is. Qd. 

Stepping-Stone to French Pronunciation, 18mo. Is. 

Stievenard's Lectures Francaises from Modern Authors. 12mo. 45. Qd . 

— Rules and Exercises on the French Language. 12mo. 35. Qd. 
Tarver's Eton French Grammar. 12mo. 65. Qd. 


Blackley's Practical German and English Dictionary. Post 8vo. 3«. Qd. 
Bnchheim's German Poetry, for Repetition. 18mo. Is. Qd. 
Collis's Card of German Irregular Verbs. 8vo. 25. 
Fischer-Fischart's Elementary German Grammar. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. Qd. 
Just's German Grammar. 12mo. I5. Qd. 

— German Reading Book. 12mo. 35. Qd. 
Longman's Pocket German and English Dictionary. Square 18mo. 2s. Qd. 
NafteTs Elementary German Course for Public Schools. Fcp. 8vo. 

German Accidence. 9d. 

German Syntax, dd. 

First German Exercise-Book. 9d. 

Second German Exercise-Book. 9d. 
Prendergast's Mastery Series, German. 12mo. 25. Qd. 
Quick's Essentials of German. Crown 8vo. 35. Qd. 
Selss's School Edition of Goethe's Faust. Crown 8vo. 5s. 

— Outline of German Literature. Crown 8vo. 4*. Qd. 
Wirth's German Ohit-Ohat. Crown 8vo. 25. Qd. 

German Prose Composition Book. dd. 
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